Up-conversion properties of lanthanide-organic frameworks and how to track ammunitions using these materials

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Weber, Ingrid T.
Terra, Idelma A. A.
de Melo, Adenaule J. G.
Lucena, Marcella A. de M.
Wanderley, Kaline A.
Paiva-Santos, Carlos de O. [UNESP]
Antonio, Selma G. [UNESP]
Nunes, Luiz A. O.
Paz, Filipe A. A.
de Sa, Gilberto F.

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Royal Soc Chemistry


This manuscript reports the first example of up-conversion properties involving Yb3+ and Tb3+ ions in five isostructural Lanthanide-Organic Frameworks (LnOFs), herein designated as UCMarker-1 to UCMarker-5, respectively, and their application as optical probes for the identification of gunshot residues (GSRs) and the ammunition encryption procedure. The excitation of the Yb3+2 F-7/2 <-> F-2(5/2) transition (980 nm) at room temperature leads to visible up-conversion (UC) emission of Tb3+ D-5(4) -> F-7(J). The GSR and lead-free primer residues are easily identified upon UV radiation (lambda = 254 nm). These results prove that the exploration of LnOFs to identify GSR is attractive for the identification of ammunition origins or caliber recognition.



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Rsc Advances. Cambridge: Royal Soc Chemistry, v. 2, n. 7, p. 3083-3087, 2012.