Evaluation of colonization, variable lipoprotein-based serological response, and cellular immune response of Mycoplasma hyorhinis in experimentally infected swine

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2021-09-01

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Merodio, Maria
McDaniel, Aric
Poonsuk, Korakrit
Magtoto, Ronaldo
Ferreyra, Franco S. Matias
Meiroz-De-Souza-Almeida, Henrique [UNESP]
Ross, Richard F.
Gimenez-Lirola, Luis
Arruda, Bailey
Derscheid, Rachel

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Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) is a commensal of the upper respiratory tract that can be shed by nasal secretions and transmitted by direct contact in neonatal and nursery pigs. Lesions associated with Mhr infection include polyserositis and arthritis; however, systemic Mhr disease pathogenesis is not well characterized. This study aimed to investigate the immunopathogenesis and bacterial dissemination pattern of Mhr using single and multiple inoculation approaches in a caesarian-derived colostrum-deprived (CDCD) pig model. Animals in three treatment groups were inoculated once (Mhr 1; n = 12) or four (Mhr 2; n = 8) times with Mhr or sham-inoculated (NC group; n = 3) nasally and by tonsillar painting. Inoculum consisted of a triple cloned Mhr field isolate (4.5 × 107 CFU/mL) in Friis medium. Clinical signs were evaluated daily during the study. Serum and oral fluid antibody (IgA and IgG) response and cellular immune response were assessed using a recombinant chimeric VlpA-G-based indirect ELISA and by ELISpot, respectively. The presence of Mhr in oral fluids, nasal and oropharyngeal swabs were evaluated by qPCR. At 6 wpi, pigs were euthanized and evaluated for gross lesions consistent with Mhr and bacterial colonization in tonsils by qPCR. No clinical signs or gross lesions consistent with Mhr-associated disease were observed throughout the study. For Mhr 2 group, the presence of IgA and IgG in serum and oral fluids were detected at 2 and 4 weeks post-inoculation (wpi), respectively, while in Mhr 1, only IgA was detected in oral fluids at 6 wpi. The proportion of animals shedding Mhr in nasal secretions varied from 20 to 40 % in the Mhr 1 and 62.5–100% in the Mhr 2 group. However, the proportion of animals shedding Mhr in oropharyngeal swabs was consistent through the study (60 %) in Mhr 1 and fluctuated from 20 % to 87.5 % in Mhr 2 group. The lack of clinical signs and the presence of Mhr specific humoral response and bacterial colonization indicates that the multiple inoculation experimental model may mimic subclinical natural infection in the field. In addition, the humoral and transient cellular response did not result in bacterial clearance. Based on these results, animals would have to be exposed multiple times to mount a detectable immune response.

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Immunopathogenesis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, qPCR, Serology, Variable lipoprotein

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Veterinary Microbiology, v. 260.

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