Penile carcinoma: Risk factors and molecular alterations

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Penile carcinoma is a rare, male cancer. Although the incidence of penile carcinoma is very low in Western countries, in some countries, the incidence is significantly greater, with penile carcinoma accounting for ≤10% of all male malignancies. Greater insight has been gained in recent years as to its pathogenesis, the risk factors associated with its development, and the clinical and histological precursor lesions related to this disease. In this review, risk and conditions factors for penile carcinoma, molecular alterations in this type of cancer, histological types, and prognostic factors will be discussed in order to further our understanding of the biology and behavior of this cancer. ©2011 with author. Published by TheScientificWorld.



Carcinoma, Molecular alterations, Penile, Risk factors, aneuploidy, cancer incidence, gene deletion, gene mutation, gene overexpression, histology, human, Human immunodeficiency virus, Human papillomavirus type 16, Human papillomavirus type 18, penis carcinoma, prognosis, rare disease, review, risk factor, tobacco, Humans, Male, Penile Neoplasms, Risk Factors

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TheScientificWorldJournal, v. 11, p. 269-282.