High-throughput analysis of the satellitome revealed enormous diversity of satellite DNAs in the neo-Y chromosome of the cricket Eneoptera surinamensis

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2017-12-01

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Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio Manuel [UNESP]
Dias, Guilherme Borges
De Lima, Leonardo Gomes
Kuhn, Gustavo Campos E Silva
Ramos, Érica [UNESP]
Martins, Cesar [UNESP]
Cabral-De-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti [UNESP]

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Satellite DNAs (satDNAs) constitute large portion of eukaryote genomes, comprising non-protein-coding sequences tandemly repeated. They are mostly found in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes such as around centromere or near telomeres, in intercalary heterochromatin, and often in non-recombining segments of sex chromosomes. We examined the satellitome in the cricket Eneoptera surinamensis (2n = 9, neo-X1X2Y, males) to characterize the molecular evolution of its neo-sex chromosomes. To achieve this, we analyzed illumina reads using graph-based clustering and complementary analyses. We found an unusually high number of 45 families of satDNAs, ranging from 4 bp to 517 bp, accounting for about 14% of the genome and showing different modular structures and high diversity of arrays. FISH mapping revealed that satDNAs are located mostly in C-positive pericentromeric regions of the chromosomes. SatDNAs enrichment was also observed in the neo-sex chromosomes in comparison to autosomes. Especially astonishing accumulation of satDNAs loci was found in the highly differentiated neo-Y, including 39 satDNAs over-represented in this chromosome, which is the greatest satDNAs diversity yet reported for sex chromosomes. Our results suggest possible involvement of satDNAs in genome increasing and in molecular differentiation of the neo-sex chromosomes in this species, contributing to the understanding of sex chromosome composition and evolution in Orthoptera.

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Scientific Reports, v. 7, n. 1, 2017.