Bisphosphonate-based surface biofunctionalization improves titanium biocompatibility
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Albano, Carolina Simão [UNESP]
Gomes, Anderson Moreira [UNESP]
da Silva Feltran, Geórgia [UNESP]
da Costa Fernandes, Célio Junior [UNESP]
Trino, Luciana Daniele [UNESP]
Zambuzzi, Willian Fernando [UNESP]
Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha [UNESP]
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Novel-biofunctionalized surfaces are required to improve the performance of endosseous implants, which are mainly related to the resistance against biocorrosion, as well as for the consideration of osteoinductive phenomena. Among different strategies, the use of bisphosphonate molecules as linkers between titanium dioxide (TiO2) surfaces and proteins is a distinctive approach, one in which bisphosphonate could play a role in the osseointegration. Thus, to address this issue, we proposed a novel biofunctionalization of TiO2 surfaces using sodium alendronate (ALN) as a linker and bovine serum albumin as the protein. Physicochemical analysis of the functionalized surfaces was performed using contact angle analyses and surface roughness measurements, which indicated an efficient functionalization. The biocompatibility of the functionalized surfaces was analyzed through the adhesion behavior of the pre-osteoblasts onto the samples. Overall, our data showed a significant improvement concerning the cell adhesion by modulating the adhesion cell-related set of genes. The obtained results show that for modified surfaces there is an increase of up to 100 times in the percentage of cells adhered when compared to the control, besides the extracellular matrix remodeling seemed to be an essential prerequisite for the early stages of cell adhesion on to the biomaterials, which was assayed by evaluating the matrix metalloproteinase activities as well as the gene activations. In the expressions of the Bsp and Bglap2 genes, for the group containing ALN (TiO2 + ALN), it was observed an increase in expression (approximately sixfold change) when compared to the control. Altogether, our data clearly showed that the bisphosphonate-biofunctionalized surface enhanced the biocompatibility of titanium and claims to further progress preclinical in vivo experimentation.
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, v. 31, n. 11, 2020.