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  • ItemTrabalho de conclusão de curso
    Análise hidrológica e modelagem geológica em sub-bacia hidrográfica na bacia de Taubaté (SP)
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2018) Lee, Isabella Gumiero ; Kiang, Chang Hung ; Gonçalves, Roger Dias ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The study of baseflow variation together with the analysis of pluviometric data in a times series, along with geological modeling e observation of specific flow rate data allows inferring impacts caused by climatic variations and exploitation of groundwater in an aquifer, as well as helps projects for locating new wells. The present work has analised the hydrographic basin of Ribeirão dos Putins, a hydrographic sub-basin of the Taubaté Basin, near São José dos Campos city, seen its importance due to been in a region arround medium to large cities that need water in abundance. The Putins riverside is a affluent from the left margin of the main river of Vale do Paraíba, the Paraíba do Sul River. Time series of flows from 1960 to 1978 were analyzed as well as pluviometric time series from 1942 to 2003. The method used to calculate the separation of baseflow and superficial flow was the digital filter method, more precisely the Fixed Range, Sliding Interval and Local Minimum methods. The geological model was generated from drilling holes data, obtained from SIAGAS and SABESP, being litological and hydrological data, on Earth Volumetric Studio 2017.3 software. The study allowed to conclude that the base flow is the main responsible for the maintenance of the river's flow, being responsible for between 56,53% and 74,77% of the total flow. The digital filter method proved to be fast, efficient and accurate in terms of the separation of flows, and, for the studied basin, the Local Minimum method was the most appropriated, once it has shown little variation due to the increase of total flow and precipitation. The baseflow of the basin represents between 21% and 27% of precipitation, values that help the estimation of the exploitable reservoir of the aquifer. The geological modeling proved to be a useful tool that aids the understanding of the physical environment and consequently helps the project of underground water exploitation wells, and...
  • ItemTrabalho de conclusão de curso
    Análise estrutural e geofísica em maciço fraturado da frente de lavra NE da mina Osamu Utsumi, Poços de Caldas - MG
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2018) Arruda, Nathássia Moreira ; Moreira, César Augusto ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The mining activity is an agent of intense influence in the environment, since the mineral extraction entails in the physical-chemical instability of the rocks recently exposed to the atmospheric conditions. The formation of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is a frequent problem in mining sulphide rocks. The interaction between rainwater, oxygen in the atmosphere and sulfide contained in the rock results in the formation of sulfuric acid, which acidifies the surroundings and contributes to the mobility of heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, U, among others. The study was carried out in the geological context of the Maciço Alcalino de Poços de Caldas, and its objective was to identify the hydrogeological flow of the fractured rock mass that constitutes the NE open mining front of the Osamu Utsumi Mine (MOU), which exploited the uranium oxide associated to disseminated sulphides in the mid 90's, and today MOU presents a series of AMDs that prevent its decommissioning. A combined analysis of the geophysical methods of electroresistance and induced polarization associated with a structural analysis was used to delimit the saturated zones concomitants to the sulfide areas that originates the current AMD. A structural analysis of the massif indicated that its flow is associated with the presence of fracture connectivity. With the geophysical data collected in the field, profiles and block diagrams were elaborated and allowed the visualization and interpretation of the relations between the anomalous zones, so that the zones of low resistivity that presented values inferior to 126 Ω.m and the zones of high chargeability with values greater than 6.5 mV/V defined the sites of generation of AMD
  • ItemTrabalho de conclusão de curso
    Modelagem numérica de fluxo no sistema aquífero cristalino, município de Itu (SP)
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2018) Navarro, Juan ; Kiang, Chang Hung ; Engelbrecht, Bruno Zanon ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The crystalline aquifer system occurs in the eastern portion of São Paulo state, with 61,312 km2 area. Due to the low productivity associated to this aquifer, it is still few used as a water resource, a scenario that has changing with the growing cities demand. Previous studies has associated higher productivity to the existence of expressive lineaments, a thick weathered zone, or the presence of few expressive fractures connected to water bodies. With the objective of understanding the groundwater governing dynamics in crystalline terrains, focusing on surface water contribution in deep tubular wells production, the present study developed a numerical flow model based on information gathered from field lithostructural survey, interpretation of pumping test diagnostic plot and stable isotopes analysis. The finite elements method was used to elaborate the model through FEFLOW algorithm. The structural survey shows predominance of two main fracture families, both vertical and high frequency; the vertical fracture analytical model was fitted to drawdown and derivative plots; the isotopic data suggest surface water contribution in deep tubular well production located next to water body. The conceptual model elaborated admits a set of hidraulically interconnected subvertical discontinuities, responsible for connecting the pumping well to the river. Based on the numerical simulation results, the maximum contribution of surface water in the well production after 1440 minutes of continuous pumping was estimated at 12.6%, while the aquifer would account for 87.3% of the volume extracted
  • ItemTrabalho de conclusão de curso
    Implicações no transporte de íons em solos lateríticos fertirrigados com vinhaça
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2018) Silva, Natália Campos da ; Kiang, Chang Hung ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    In Brazil, vinasse has been increasingly used in sugarcane plantations as an alternative to soil fertirrigation, but this can lead to environmental problems and between them, contamination of groundwater by leaching processes. However, Brazilian soils often present lateritic characteristics, with different physical and hydraulic properties, mainly in the pore size distribution that results to be bimodal or multimodal, unlike other localities where the contaminant transport model were developed and that in general, have an unimodal distribution. In this context, the present study presents numerical modeling using HYDRUS 2D / 3D software to simulate the transport a generic ion present in the vinasse from two sources of contamination of a schematic profile considering the use of uni and bimodal models in soils with distribution of bimodal pores. For this purpose, laboratory tests of physical characterization and analytical determination of water retention curves in soil and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in soils with different types of bimodal pore distribution were performed. The results showed that, for the hypothetical model analyzed, the vinasse ions may reach groundwater in a short time of 1 to 3 years and that the use of unimodal models in lateritic soils may lead to the underestimation of the magnitude and overestimation of the time of arrival of the final concentrations, especially in soils where the discontinuity of the pore distribution occurs at low suction values
  • ItemTrabalho de conclusão de curso
    Estudo estrutural e geoelétrico em aquífero fraturado na região de Caçapava do Sul (RS)
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2018) Oliveira, Mariana Vieira Galvão de ; Moreira, César Augusto ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The inherent structural complexity of fractured rock aquifers, which controls the groundwater accumulation and flow in restricted zones, lead to a high number of non-producing dry wells. The analysis of geomorphological features and indirect investigations allows the identification of favorable targets for groundwater exploitation, representing a rational procedure in villages and small towns far away from urban centers. This work deals with regional and local structural surveys coupled with electrical resistivity tomography data in order to identify favorable targets for groundwater exploitation for urban consumption in a fractured granite located in a small village six kilometers north of Caçapava do Sul city, southern Brazil. The structural control is manifested in the regional landforms and clearly conditions the orientation of main drainages. Based on this structural control, four parallel electrical tomography survey lines were performed in an area of interest for groundwater exploitation, followed by the generation of 2D inversion models and interpolation for the analysis of pseudo 3D models. The contact between the very thin superficial soil (regolith) and the underlying granite massif determines the existence of a regional free aquifer and the probable recharge of the fractured rock aquifer. In the 2D inversion models, abrupt variations of electrical resistivity related to locally recognized vertical fractures occur, although they do not show lateral continuity (out of plane). The analysis of the geophysical maps from 40 meters depth allows the recognition of three alignments of low resistivity (around 500  m) within a granite context where high values predominate (above 15,000  m). These alignments show a triple fracture intersection pattern also recognized in satellite images, which are highly favorable for groundwater accumulation and exploitation
  • ItemTrabalho de conclusão de curso
    Diretrizes para adequação à construção sustentável: estudo para aplicação em uma instituição de ensino
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2018-11-13) Kalichtzuk, Giovanna Palmigiano ; Maia, Ana Claudia Corrêa ; Maia, Diego Correa ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Since Mankind has begun to settle and form societies, cities, he has been affected by the consequences it's bad use of environmental resources has led to happen;; examples as water pollution, soil deterioration. But what in fact led to a alarming situation was what started in the 18th century, the industrial revolution, which stimulated population growth, mass production and consumption (this one more and more into global culture). It is not that economic growth, profit, are not really important for a society disenrollment, but what the cost of its life quality this same society has to pay in the future. Global population continues to grow, just as industries and urban areas, and causes for example heat islands to get warmer, phenomenon this that occurs in cities agglomerations, this which haven't the structure or are planned for such population. Within the solutions that come up, to at least minimize the impacts, is to give more efficiency to constructions as to being less threatening to the environment, such as less energy consumption, water reuse. For so the industry is creating technologies that are capable to issue or at least optimize the buildings function to as a more sustainable one. This study and the disenrollment of the Project has as main intent to research the alternatives and technologies that are applicable to Existing buildings, as well as it's socioeconomic and Environmental efficient points, and that can be put in practice in a school. This research is based on a specific certification for its international recognition, as well as the fact that embraces different aspects sustainability, and also previous studies on alternatives and sustainable technologies. The certification which was used as a model has it's adaptation for hospitals, commercial centers, homes, and so on as to create different scenarios as for what a construction is used for. The choice was to use the model for schools
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    Caracterização da coleta informal de materiais recicláveis no município de Rio Claro - SP
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2018-11-27) Ramos, Lucas Augusto ; Castro, Marcus Cesar Avezum Alves de ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Not available
  • ItemTrabalho de conclusão de curso
    Análise sobre o gerenciamento dos resíduos de cigarro na Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus de Rio Claro/SP
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2019-06-13) Rizzollo, Luma Detoni ; Moraes, Clauciana Schmidt Bueno de ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The volume of waste generated raised considerably as the society developed new products and increased its consumption patterns. Along with the increased waste generation, the necessity of creating laws that regulate the waste management appeared. So the Law nº 12305/10 - National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP) was developed. Besides regulating the waste management, the law also defines the concept of shared resposability, making the generator responsible for the waste generated and for the implementation of a Waste Management Plan (WMP) in public and private instituitions. This way, public instituitions, as universities, should consider the implementation of this management. The waste management must consider all kinds os waste generated, incluiding those that might go unnoticed, like the micro waste. The cigarette wastes contain around 4700 toxic substances that might contaminate water and soil. Also, when incorrectly discarded might cause fires. This work proposes the management of cigarette waste at the State University of São Paulo Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Rio Claro campus. The chosen metodology was the exploratory one, involving literature review about the theme, questionnaires applications, the diagnosis of this waste situation at the university and realization of a case study at the campus, for further analysis of the obtained results. At the case study the alternative chosen was to recicle this waste, made possible due to the technology developed at the University of Brasilia that removes all the toxic substances from the cigarette wastes, turning them into celulosic mass. The installation of collector boxes for this waste, allows the segregation and collect of this material. The volume of collected and recicled waste and the impacts that stopped being generated with this management were quantified and analysed. For the study conclusion, the reduction of the environmental impacts that could be generated, the viability of the chosen...
  • ItemTrabalho de conclusão de curso
    Sucessão da comunidade fúngica termofílica e termotolerante na compostagem da gordura de frango
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2019-06-06) Monteiro, Lana Sobral Vieira Escada ; Rodrigues, André ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Composting is a popular sustainable alternative for final waste disposal. Fungi and bacteria are the main drivers of this process, because they are the ultimate decomposers of the organic matter. However, few studies explored how the thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi (the ones that can resist high temperature) are involved in composting. Assessing the composition and dynamics of such fungal communities can be helpful for developing products to accelerate the composting of many residues. The high biological digestion system (ADB) uses such an accelerator to increase the decomposition rate. Here we evaluate the succession of the thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi in the composting process of residues derived from a poultry slaughterhouse. A total of four samples from the decomposing material were collected for fungal isolation, each representing one stage of the composting process. Classic and molecular (DNA sequencing) methods were used to identify the isolated microorganisms. Fungal communities found were evaluated for richness and abundance of taxa in each stage of the process. The initial raw substrate (sawdust) had a greater number of fungi when compared to substrate in the mesophilic phase, considering the colony forming units per gram of sample. The fungal abundance increased again during the thermophilic phase and remained stable until the end of the process. A total of 74 heat resistant fungi were isolated comprehending five taxa: Rhizomucor sp. (representing 54.1 % of the isolated fungi), Aspergillus fumigatus (29.7 %), Lichtheimia sp. (6.8 %), Rhizopus sp. (5.4 %) and Thermomyces sp. (4.1 %). Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizomucor sp. were observed in all stages, representing 100 % of the isolated fungi at the thermophilic phase. On the other hand, Thermomyces sp. and Rhizopus sp. were isolated from the initial substrate and in the mesophilic stage. This result points to a decrease of fungal richness during the thermophilic stage...
  • ItemTrabalho de conclusão de curso
    Petrografia dos granitos do maciço Santa Cruz, província estanífera de Rondônia
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2019-07-03) Branco, Vítor Xatara ; Leite Júnior, Washington Barbosa ; Bettencourt, Jorge Silva ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The Santa Cruz massif is located about 10 km northeast of the Bom Futuro mine, and occurs in the domain of the Younger Granites of Rondônia (998-974 Ma). The present work consisted in the petrographic study of samples of granite bodies of this massif, in order to better characterize it, since there are few works on this massif. The petrography revealed the existence of granitic facies such as alkali-feldspar granites, biotite sienogranites, hornblende-biotite alkali-feldspar granites and hornblende-biotite sienogranites, distributed in two distinctly textured groups: a group of equigranular granites, usually of a pinkish color, and another group of fine-grained porphyritic granites, commonly gray in color. The modal composition of these samples shows predominance of alkali feldspar, quartz and, in a smaller quantity, plagioclase, besides biotite, hornblende and sodium amphibole as mafic (main mafic biotite). The accessory phase is represented by zircon, chlorite, apatite, muscovite, alanite and opaque. It is possible to identify mimerchytic fabric and cross-hatch twinning, Carlsbad twinning and polysynthetic twinning, in the feldspar and plagioclase crystals. In addition, alteration features are recognized, evidencing sodium, potassium and argillic alteration acting on these rocks. It is common to find in the Younger Granites of Rondônia biotite granites associated with hornblende-biotite granites, in the São Carlos and Massangana massifs, but there was still no record of granites with sodium amphibole in other massifs. The presence of peralkaline granite in the Santa Cruz massif allows to recognize the existence of two late and chemically distinct subsuites, one of metaluminous and peralcaline nature, and another of peraluminous nature. Rocks with similar configuration occur in the province of Jos, Nigeria, and allow a good correlation with the magmatism of the Younger Granites of Rondônia
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    Análise das áreas verdes urbanas do município de Limeira - SP
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2019-06-17) Joaquim, Luis Renato ; Pancher, Andréia Medinilha ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The present study aims to analyze the Green Area Indexes (GAI), percentage of Vegetation Cover (VC) and Urban Green index of the continuous urban network of the city of Limeira/SP, through manual delimitation and object-oriented classification. The distribution of Green Areas in Limeira showed great variability, with many zones presenting GAI of 0 m²/hab and a single zone presenting values of 49,3 m²/hab. The zones with biggest GAI were the central ones, with peripheral sectors showing to be mostly devoid of such features, with a general GAI of 1,46 m²/hab. The general Vegetation Cover percentage was of 9%, with one zone presenting 31% of covering and 20% of the zones showing covering equal or inferior to 5%. The Urban Green index was calculated through superposition of the two analyzed indicators, and showed itself low, with 41% of the zones being classified as of low environmental quality in relation to the rest of the city and only 8% showing environmental quality above the city's median
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    Diagnóstico do uso de águas subterrâneas na bacia do rio Corumbataí: uma contribuição para a gestão sustentável
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2019-06-17) Carvalho, Gabriela Barbosa de ; Gastmans, Didier ; Santarosa, Lucas Vituri ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The increase of water demand due to the population growth and the significant economic development in the Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiai Rivers (PCJ) watershed has been causing excessive pressure on water resources. The excessive consumption of water along with the increase of the its demand requires management strategies to avoid a crisis situation. Besides the groundwater importance in the PCJ watershed, whether in the watercourse flow maintenance or in the water supply, the lack of groundwater knowledge and interest makes its management limited, presenting failures. In this context, this graduation study presents the diagnostic of the PCJ watershed groundwater use through the groundwater volume quantification from the grant permits data compared to the reference flow statistics established by the water management agency of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. All the data about the water licenses and the values of the reference flow statistics was taken from the state agency public database. The results show that the groundwater represents only 11% from the total water abstraction in the Corumbatai River watershed, in which most of the groundwater is collected from the Tubarao Aquifer System (SAT). From this data it was possible to estimate the volume pumped and to identify the critical areas in the watershed. In a few places, the volume pumped represents almost 170% of the specific low-flow statistic Q7,10, revealing a critical situation. This large concentration of pumping wells is located in the urban area of the Rio Claro, Santa Gertrudes and Cordeiropolis cities, where approximately 54% of the groundwater is used for industrial purposes and 40% is assigned to urban uses, not necessarily to public supply. In order to preserve the sustainability of the groundwater resources, it is recommended a few maintenance measures, such as the flow and water level monitoring, the interaction between pumping wells and their inspection
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    Análise do efeito de diferentes escalas espaciais no estudo da fenologia vegetativa remota
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2019-06-13) Crivelin, Carolina de Abreu ; Morellato, Leonor Patricia Cerdeira ; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Remote monitoring of vegetative phenology provides understanding of ecosystem process dynamics and is a reliable method to monitor plant community responses to climate change. The investment in new technologies brought new monitoring methods, less laborious than traditional approaches, such as near-surface and orbital sensor monitoring, which generate different spatial scales of phenological information and require a comparative methodology to evaluate the extent of agreement between them. The aim of this study was the phenological monitoring of four different areas, represented in biomes as Caatinga and Cerrado and their respective vegetation types, assessing the agreement between vegetative phenology information extracted through near-surface cameras and orbital sensors. Three vegetation indexes were used: based on Red, Green and Blue (RGB) cameras, the Gcc Index, and based on orbital sensors, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) products. The analysis showed an anticipation of the phenological response from the indexes extracted by orbital sensors for the Start of the Growing Season (SOS). On the other hand, for Peak (MID) and End (EOS) of the Growing Season, the opposite effect was observed, causing a delay in the dates extracted by orbital sensors in relation to those extracted by cameras. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of how near-surface and satellite remote sensing are complementary in the study of vegetative phenology and to what extent these scales are comparable
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    Análise do uso e cobertura da terra e sua interferência na drenagem urbana na cidade de Rio das Pedras (SP)
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2019-06-13) Rodrigues, João Victor ; Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini da ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The increasing urbanization process causes changes in the hydrological cycle, due to the soil sealing. As a result, the infiltration of rainwater decreases, and the volume and velocity of runoff increases, causing the amount of water that reaches the water courses by the time is much bigger, which can cause flooding in areas that were not predisposed to such an event under natural conditions. With the occupation of floodplain areas of rivers and streams, added to sealing, the return time of the phenomenon decreases sharply, putting human lives at risk and bringing material damages. Even in a small city like Rio das Pedras - SP, which has not yet reported any flooding cases, with expansion and urbanization over the decades can start to have urban drainage problems with Ribeirão Tijuco Preto, which cuts the city in half. Predicting scenarios and being able to estimate when the problems will arise is essential for urban and environmental planning in the city, allowing the taking of preventive measures and minimizing risks
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    Efeito do pré-tratamento ácido diluído na formação de pseudo-lignina em palha de cana-de-açúcar e sacarificação enzimática
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2019-06-17) Martins, Júlia Ribeiro ; Brienzo, Michel ; Schmatz, Alison Andrei ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Sugarcane is widely grown, mainly in Brazil, due to its great economic value, as a source of sugar and for ethanol production. Cellulose present in the straw of sugarcane presents potential for the generation of products of outstanding economic importance. The straw consists of the tip and leaves of the sugarcane plant, with high potential for the generation of high value-added products, since that about 30% of the total energy of the plant is contained in this material. The straw is becoming a new abundant residue, studied for its use, such as its conversion into bioethanol, a process in which the recalcitrance of the material needs an application of pre-treatment. In the diluted acid pre-treatment, sugar and lignin-degradation products are generated, which are inhibitors in the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process. In order to improve the effectiveness of pre-treatments and increase the productivity of second-generation ethanol, pretreatment conditions should be controlled. The sugarcane straw was used in pre-treatments with diluted sulfuric acid carried out in stainless steel reactors with an operational volume of 50 mL. The material was subjected to different operating conditions, such as reaction time (10 to 60 minutes), temperature (120 to 180 °C) and acid concentration (2 to 20%, m/m acid mass per mass of material), to evaluate the released sugars and the formation of lignin and pseudo-lignin (lignin condensed with sugar degradation products). The results indicate that very extreme acid pretreatment conditions (60 minutes pretreatment at 180°C and 20% acid) resulted in the degradation of the cellulosic fraction, with a 56.17% reduction in relation to the in natura biomass, which explains the decrease in glucose yield after enzymatic hydrolysis, since these conditions had one of the lowest yields (1.49%). In addition, there was an increase on lignin content in all samples after diluted acid pretreatment, while a reduction in...
  • ItemTrabalho de conclusão de curso
    Avaliação dos índices de áreas verdes e de cobertura vegetal do perímetro urbano do município de Rio Claro (SP)
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2019-06-17) Baraviera, Gustavo Henrique ; Pancher, Andréia Medinilha ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The fundamental objective of this study was to analyse the green area indexes (GAI) and the vegetation cover indexes (VCI) of the city of Rio Claro/SP through manual delimitation and object-supervised digital classification, respectively. The neighborhoods showed great heterogeneity, because the GAI varied from 0m¹/hab to 4,64m²/hab, except the Santana neighborhood that showed a very discrepant value (19,49m²/hab). The VCI also showed considerable difference among the neighborhoods, varying from 24,61m²/hab to 263m²/hab, with the exception of the Industrial District, that presented a very superior value (4725,32m²/hab). Besides, an average correlation was identified between GAI (0,606), VCI (0,552) and other quality of life indexes, such as literacy
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    Ecoenzima: aplicações na área da engenharia ambiental
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2019-06-12) Fonseca, Aline Costa Soares da ; Lima, Luiz Augusto Normanha ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Eco enzyme is a compound resulting from the fermentation of organic waste that can be applied in a variety of uses including sanitation. Eco enzyme was developed by Dr. Rosukon and has been well known in the region of Thailand and neighboring countries. This review has the purpose of describe the potential and the functioning of the compound and to analyze the current and future possibilities for its application in the environmental area through a literature review. This research aimed to contribute to the construction of the academic base of the theme in Brazil and to spread knowledge about the theme
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    Diagnóstico ambiental de voçorocas localizadas em São Pedro (SP): análise temporal e proposta de recuperação
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2019-06-28) Perussi, Alexandre ; Rosolen, Vania Silvia ; Neves, Monique de Paula ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The objective of the present work was to carry out the environmental diagnosis of gullies located in the city of São Pedro (SP) from the physical and anthropic aspects, and to propose recovery techniques. For the development of the work were carried out five main steps: bibliographical survey; delimitation of the gullies by satellite images from 2007 to 2019 in an interval of 3 years; mapping of the physical environment and land use; survey of annual precipitation data; and proposing recovery measures. Through the results obtained it was possible to understand the factors that conditioned the evolution of erosions over the last years, and to propose technical solutions to contain the progress of the processes, focusing on the rehabilitation of the site
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    Corroendo estruturas sociais através do ensino: contribuições do ensino de geografia para educação das relações raciais
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2018-11-08) Wenceslau, Lisie Tatiane de Lima ; Carvalho, Maria Bernadete Sarti da Silva ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    In the common sense, racism is still treated as a sporadic or personified manifestation, practiced by an individual of the group socialized/understood as white. It is often understood as synonym of prejudice and repeatedly declared as a sporadic practice by the defenders of racial democracy and by the portion of the society that doesn't acknowledge, doesn't qualify and doesn't denominate racism. When racism is seen from the perspective of domination, it leaves the condition of occasional practice and arises as concrete action, present in the daily spatial social relations, being constituted as structuring system of the modern society. Modernity here must be understood as a period that inaugurates a conscious project of domination by the European countries over the other territories spread around the globe. This research aims to comprehend in which way teachers can practice an anti-racism curriculum and present the Afro-Brazilian and African history and geography, if they carry negative representations of being black, if they have distorted geo-identities about black territories, if they are unaware of the stories of resistance and of the black fights. The data that substantiate this research result from the cycle of conferences: Racial Relations in Brazil Structures, Concepts and Debates in the school environment. The cycle of conferences aimed, based on decolonial theories, to present to teachers the concepts of race, racism, eurocentrism, modernity/racionality, and through those, understand how the representations brought by these teachers impact the production of teaching-learning sequences and projects that have as the main goal to extinguish racism as domination system
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    Síntese e caracterização de materiais nanoestruturados luminescentes à base de CaAl2O4
    (Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), 2018-11-21) Silva, Gabriela Maria Rodrigues da ; Mesquita, Alexandre ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Nanostructured materials have been extensively studied, not only for the new properties and their possible technological applications, but also for the search for a better understanding of the physical and chemical aspects that cause such changes. Among these materials, pure or doped calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4) has received attention due to remarkable fundamental properties, versatility and potential for several technological applications. However, there is no consensus in the literature regarding the nature of the emission of photoluminescence in these nanocrystalline materials. CaAl2O4 doped with rare earths or transition metals showed interesting luminescent properties and has since been investigated as a possible host material for long-lasting persistent phosphors. In this context, this work aims to perform the synthesis and characterization of CaAl2O4 pure or doped with Mn and Ce atoms and to correlate the photoluminescent properties with structure characterization. In this work, chemical preparation methods were used, such as the polymer precursor method. The morphological characterization was done through techniques such as high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (FEG-MEV). The structural properties of nanoparticles, as well as their physical and chemical properties, were determined by conventional techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence. The results obtained from the above cited techniques showed that the CaAl2O4:Ce and CaAl2O4:Mn samples were successfully prepared by the polymer precursor method. The results of the X-ray diffraction showed that at 1100 °C there is no spurious phase formation for the CaAl2O4:Mn samples whereas for the CaAl2O4:Ce samples the second phase formation is observed. The results of Raman spectroscopy confirm the formation of the P121/n1 space group monoclinic phase and also evidence the presence of CeO2 secreted in the...