Artigos - Psicologia da Educação - FCLAR

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  • ItemArtigo
    Moral values for the Civic-Military Schools: heteronomy as educational project
    (Univ Brasilia, 2023-01-01) Daud, Rafael Petta; Calmon Nabuco Lastoria, Luiz Antonio [UNESP]; Gomes Vieira de Carvalho, Joao Mauro [UNESP]; Panigassi, Pedro Luis [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The present work intends to understand some aspects of the educational project underlying the implementation of Civic-Military Schools (ECIM) by the Bolsonaro government. To do so, we submitted to a hermeneutic analysis the moral values that, accompanied by the respective descriptors, are postulated by the Guidelines for Civic-Military Schools as a norm for ECIM: civility, honesty and respect. We conclude that such values, in the way they are situated, represent a strong predilection for moral heteronomy as an educational principle, distancing themselves, therefore, from the moral autonomy that would be favored by the democratization of school relations.
  • ItemArtigo
    The implementation of a coexistence program for schools: bases and challenges from top to botton
    (Unesp-faculdade Ciencias & Letras, 2022-06-01) Tognetta, Luciene Regina Paulino [UNESP]; Abdalla, Maria de Fatima Barbosa; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Univ Catolica Santos (UNISANTOS)
    Dealing with the issue of coexistence problems at school, already present before the pandemic and boosted by it, seems to be one of the most outstanding discussions to achieve educational goals as desired as the formation of autonomous and ethical people. In this sense, this theoretical article aims to briefly present the description of the implementation of a Coexistence Program in the public education network of Sao Paulo, its difficulties and learning for those who still hope to implement, in Brazil, the construction of public policies that guarantee the theme of coexistence as a condition for Brazilian education.
  • ItemArtigo
    Children suffer too: emotional suffering in children during the COVID-19 pandemic
    (Unesp-faculdade Ciencias & Letras, 2022-06-01) Tognetta, Luciene Regina Paulino [UNESP]; Cuadra-Martinez, David Jorge; Queiroz, Deise Maciel de [UNESP]; Bomfim, Sanderli Aparecida Bicudo [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Univ Atacama (UDA)
    This research aimed to investigate how students in the Initial Years of Ensino Fundamental feel in the pandemic context. The objectives were to identify the frequency of situations in which there are signs of emotional distress in children and to verify whether there is a significant relationship between emotional distress and sociodemographic aspects (race, gender, own cell phone). A total of 1041 children from the 4th and 5th grades of Ensino Fundamental participated in the research. The instrument used for this verification was a questionnaire, containing sociodemographic aspects (ethnic-racial origin, gender, economic profile and access to communication resources) and situations related to emotional distress. The data found show that children have shown both feelings and behaviors that indicate emotional distress (fear, anxiety, loneliness, self-mutilation) and also that there are significant differences in emotional distress scores related to gender and ethnic-racial origin.
  • ItemArtigo
    Emotional suffering in teenagers during the COVID-19 pandemic
    (Unesp-faculdade Ciencias & Letras, 2022-06-01) Tognetta, Luciene Regina Paulino[UNESP]; Cuadra-Martinez, David Jorge; Souza, Raul Alves de [UNESP]; Fioranelli Neto, Mario [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Univ Atacama (UDA)
    The coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic represented a challenge to physical and emotional health for adolescents subjected to almost two years of social isolation, restricted to family life and prevented from being in school. This article presents data from the pandemic associated with emotional distress among adolescents and the impact of restricted school life in this period. This is an exploratory, descriptive research, whose objective was to identify the frequency of situations in which there are signs of emotional distress in adolescents and to compare the scores found between demographic profile issues (race, gender and smartphone use). A total of 1,991 adolescents participated in the sample, students from two directorates of the Sao Paulo state public education network. The investigation instrument was built from a broad literature review in the form of a questionnaire with closed questions, divided into two parts: the first, containing 13 questions about the student's profile and, the second, with 21 questions, about signs of emotional suffering. From the quantitative analysis, the results found highlight a higher score of emotional distress among adolescent girls and black students and point to the urgency of actions that provide welfare and the learning of assertive forms of conflict resolution, as well as the urgency of spaces for expression of feelings by students.
  • ItemEditorial
    The topic of ethical coexistence inschool contexts
    (Unesp-faculdade Ciencias & Letras, 2022-06-01) Tognetta, Luciene Regina Paulino [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
  • ItemArtigo
    The Committed Objectivity of Science and the Importance of Scientific Knowledge in Ethical and Political Education
    (2021-01-01) Duarte, Newton [UNESP]; Massi, Luciana [UNESP]; Teixeira, Lucas André [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Despite advances in discussions about the nature of science, there is still a paucity of discussion on the ontological dimension of science in science education research that makes it difficult to defend its content and teaching. In this article, the reasons for trusting science and science education are analyzed through three arguments. The first is that both the belligerent obscurantism and fake news of the ultra-right and the postmodern relativism of sections of the leftwing are connected to objective movements from the capitalist socioeconomic reality. The reestablishment of trust in science and its teaching requires an effort to understand the contemporary social contradictions, problems, and challenges. The second argument is that scientific knowledge does not need to abdicate objectivity in order to ground ethical and political positions. The third argument is that the socialization of scientific knowledge through school education is a necessary, albeit insufficient, condition for the ethical–political education of younger generations. The article concludes by stating that it is necessary to overcome the choice between an education that is supposedly neutral in political and ideological terms and an education that rejects the socialization of scientific knowledge in the name of respecting the multiplicity of culturally rooted voices from within the different oppressed groups present in today’s society.
  • ItemArtigo
    The classic and universal values: A discussion from the foundations of historical-critical pedagogy
    (2021-01-01) Ferreira, Carolina Góis [UNESP]; Duarte, Newton [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This paper aims to develop relationships between the concept of classic, as postulated by historical-critical pedagogy and the constitution of universal values. In order to achieve this goal, the text is divided in three parts. Firstly, we discuss the counterpoint between the conception of knowledge present in historical-critical pedagogy and the conception of hegemonic knowledge. Secondly, based on the works of Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), productions by György Lukács (1885-1971) and authors close to his thinking, such as Agnes Heller (1929-2019) and György Márkus (1934-2016), we seek to establish the relations between the construction of universal values and the classic. Lastly, in the third part, we analyze educational work as a process situated in the scope of school education and linked to the preservation of universal values condensed in classic knowledge. We observed that the understandingof the classic based on the constitution of universal values is fundamental to an understanding of its conformation as a product of human activity. The values condensed in classic knowledge, beyond the social-historical link, transcend towards universality. The adequate comprehension of this process allows us to overcome the antinomy between dogmatism and relativism, a fundamental condition to understanding the concept of classic as postulated by historical-critical pedagogy.
  • ItemArtigo
    Contributions and limits of classical Greek philosophy to music and music education today: Music as a mimesis of objective reality
    (2021-01-01) de Abreu, Thiago Xavier; Duarte, Newton [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This article aims to identify contributions and limits of classical Greek philosophy to current thoughts on music and musical formation. Through a bibliographic study of works in the field of philosophy, musicology, and education, we analyze the fundamentals on the nature of music and musical formation that appear in Ancient Greek philosophical thought. Next, based mainly on the considerations of György Lukács, we discuss the importance of these conceptions to overcome the subjectivist and formalistic perspectives of music and music education, highlighting the dialectical character of the notion of music as an objective mimesis present in Greek thought. Thus, classical philosophy can help us understand the social meaning of musical practice and its educational processes, showing us ways to reflect on the current condition of music in our society. On the other hand, the idealistic character of these conceptions prevents us from capturing the historical and concrete meaning of this social role, thereby also demonstrating limits to overcome.
  • ItemLivro
    Critical perspectives on activity: Explorations across education, work, and everyday life
    (2006-01-01) Sawchuk, Peter H.; Duarte, Newton [UNESP]; Elhammoumi, Mohamed; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The last two decades have seen an international explosion of interest in theories of mind, culture, and activity. This book includes a diverse array of theoretical perspectives from international scholars in the fields of education, psychology, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, communications, industrial relations, and business studies. Broken into three main sections (education, work, and everyday life) each chapter emerges from an analysis of practice and learning as social cultural participation and historical change in relation to the concept of activity, contradiction, and struggle.
  • ItemCapítulo de livro
    Education as mediation between the individual’s everyday life and the historical construction of society and culture by humankind
    (2006-01-01) Duarte, Newton [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    What is man? This is the primary and principal question that philosophy asks. How is it to be answered? (…) Reflecting on it, we can see that in putting the question “what is man” what we mean is: what can man become? That is, can man dominate his own destiny, can he “make himself,” can he create his own life? Since the later 1980s, I have been undertaking study and research directed at the elaboration of a Marxist theory of education. These studies encompass works written by Marx himself as well as by more contemporary authors and include a wide range of fields of knowledge, from philosophy to psychology, passing through sociology, history, and economy (Duarte, 1993, 1996, 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, 2002a, 2002b, 2003a, 2003b, 2003c). In these studies, I have touched upon a complex set of mediations that connect the critical analysis of contemporary capitalist social reality to the debates in the field of pedagogical ideas. However, taking into account the limited space of a chapter, it will not be possible to approach here this complex set of mediations. Some simplification will become inescapable and providing a somewhat schematic character in my argumentation. Being conscious of the limits of this chapter, I have proposed the task of holding here the position on an articulation between activity theory and the theory of everyday life from the point of view of Karl Marx’s philosophical anthropology.
  • ItemCapítulo de livro
    Introduction: Exploring activity across education, work, and everyday life
    (2006-01-01) Sawchuk, Peter H.; Duarte, Newton [UNESP]; Elhammoumi, Mohamed; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Clearly, there has been an international explosion of interest in theories of mind, culture, and activity over the last two decades. This interest is well founded. The traditions involved in this explosion speak to some of the most pressing and obvious challenges facing the social sciences. These include the increasingly inter-disciplinary nature of problem solving; the complexity of social systems; the role of technologies, tools, culture, divisions of labor, and other mediating factors; the role of cognition, social interaction, and learning; and, perhaps most importantly of all, how and why such systems-from classrooms, to schools, to organizations and beyond-undergo change. There are very few analytic traditions that offer so much to students, scholars, and perhaps even policy-makers. In this collection, theories of mind, culture, and activity are also rooted in a long and rich tradition of social criticism as well. These traditions have been recovered, developed, and expanded. Today, there are flourishing journals, scholarly associations, conferences, and powerful research programs widely available. Reports, monographs, articles, books, and collections such as this one are circulating across international and linguistic boundaries more than ever before. However, despite this, and, in particular, despite the existence of several high-quality collections devoted to representing this explosion, there remain several important gaps that must be addressed. This collection seeks to respond to these gaps by posing, illuminating, and answering important questions that define these gaps in two principal ways.
  • ItemArtigo
    História da Saúde Mental infantil: A criança Brasileira da Colônia à República Velha
    (2006-01-01) Ribeiro, Paulo Rennes Marçal [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This paper proposes a reflection on Child Mental Health in Brazil and describes the process of constitution and development of medical, psychological and psychiatric care to children from Colony to Old Republic. In the colonial period there are reports and documents written by voyagers. In the 18th century a new concept of childhood was developed and in the 19th century the main concern about infancy was mortality and family care.
  • ItemArtigo
    Determination and Freedom in Creation Mediated by Sign Systems
    (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2021-01-22) Duarte, Newton [UNESP]; Silva, Efrain Maciel E; Anjos, Ricardo Eleutério Dos; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp); Universidade Federal de Goiás; Universidade do Oeste Paulista
    This article examines the relationship between determination and freedom in the human act of creation mediated by the use of sign systems. To this end, an approximation is made between György Lukács’ philosophical-ontological reflection on the dialectic between teleology and causality in work activity and analysis carried out by Lev Vigotski on the importance of sign systems for human psychic development. It is concluded that creation involves complex relations between the freedom of the subjects and the socio-cultural determinations.
  • ItemArtigo
    O desenvolvimento profissional de professores das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental
    (Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia, 2005-12) Chakur, Cilene Ribeiro De Sá Leite [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    A previous research showed that the professionality of teacher's from 5th to 8th grades is developed in different levels and that there are certain patterns in the teachers' reactions up against daily school conflicts. This present study intended to verify if there would be differences in the professionality levels between the teachers. Fourteen teachers from 1st to 4th grades of a public school in a city from São Paulo State were interviewed about hypothetical stories, each one containing a problem to be judged/solved; the analysis complied with piagetian criteria. The results indicated that these teachers' depositions are distributed by the same levels previously found and the reaction ways to the conflict are just the same. It was conclude that the teacher's professional development occurs in a sequence of hierarchical levels and in order to make the professional schemes progress and improve it is fundamental to be aware of the presented obstacles, first step for its solution.
  • ItemArtigo
    Semiformação e inteligência artificial no ensino 1
    (UNICAMP - Faculdade de Educação, 2020-01-20) Campos, Luis Fernando Altenfelder De Arruda [UNESP]; Lastória, Luiz Antônio Calmon Nabuco [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Este artigo procura refletir sobre tecnologias audiovisuais, plataformas digitais e softwares de inteligência artificial voltados à personalização do ensino. A análise aborda o uso de algoritmos para avaliação de professores, defesa de empresas de tecnologia educacional, gamificação como estratégia para incentivar os estudos e elaboração de propostas pedagógicas que preparem o aluno para um mercado cada vez mais apoiado em sistemas operacionais automatizados e artificialmente “inteligentes”. Ao final procurou-se apontar reconfigurações do processo de semiformação no início do século XXI ocasionadas pela instrumentalização computacional da educação e a industrialização digital da cultura.
  • ItemArtigo
    Conhecimento tácito e conhecimento escolar na formação do professor (por que Donald Schön não entendeu Luria)
    (Centro de Estudos Educação e Sociedade - Cedes, 2003-08) Duarte, Newton [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    This paper defends that Donald Schön's works on professional education in general and more particularly on teachers' education are based both on an epistemology that devalues scientific knowledge and on a pedagogy that devalues school knowledge. A critical analysis of Schön's concepts of tacit knowledge (or reflection-in-action) and school knowledge is presented. This critical analysis is inserted in the context of a criticism of the currently hegemonic epistemological ideas in the field of studies on teachers' education.
  • ItemArtigo
    A profissionalidade docente em uma abordagem construtivista
    (Fundação Carlos Chagas, 2002-11) Chakur, Cilene Ribeiro De Sá Leite [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    This work challenges, on one hand, cognitivist researches that show misconceptions and exaggerated exaltations of teachers' capacity for reflection and autonomy, and on the other, evolutionary studies on the teaching career that do not explain the detours found in the development of this professional teaching. The study aims to identify levels of acquisition of professional teaching in the fields of pedagogical practice, autonomy and professional identity, and to investigate teachers' forms of reacting to conflicts in everyday school life. Nineteen teachers from the 5th to 8th grades from a state school in Araraquara, São Paulo State, were interviewed using a set of stories that simulated problematic school situations. The analysis of testimonies allowed for the establishment of three hierarchical levels in the acquisition of professional teaching, each one being accompanied by a form of compensational reaction to the conflict. The study indicates that changes in teachers' professional practice depends on their awareness not just to change itself but also to central disturbing factors, not always noticed, that affect balance. Teachers can notice the conflict, without being sympathetic to changes, and they can become sympathetic to changes but do not know how to make them.
  • ItemArtigo
    (Univ Estadual Paulista-unesp, Fac Ciencias Letras Assis, 2020-11-01) Marques, Hellen Jaqueline; Duarte, Newton [UNESP]; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS); Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The importance of education is related to human needs and social rights. Thus, educational proposals have emerged for decades with different intervention perspectives that seek to meet equally different goals and worldviews. Given this scenario, based on historical dialectical materialism, we will present an analysis of the contribution of school education to the formation of class consciousness and human emancipation. In this sense, we aim to debate the specificity of school education and its relations with the political struggle in capitalist society and present historical-critical pedagogy as a revolutionary alternative. In addition to understanding the contributions of the multiple spaces where teaching and learning take place, we list school education as a privileged locus for access and appropriation of essential content and inherent to human rights. The research is based on the possibility of a counter-hegemonic education that contributes to overcoming the social relations of domination.
  • ItemArtigo
    (Univ Estadual Paulista-unesp, Fac Ciencias Letras Assis, 2021-01-01) Paulino Tognetta, Luciene Regina [UNESP]; Aviles Martinez, Jose Maria; Carneiro Goncalves, Catarina; Andrade, Fernando; Boni, Larissa Di Genova [UNESP]; Pupin Santos, Natalia Cristina [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp); Univ Valladolid UVA; Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB)
    Although bullying occurs in parental relationships, its prevention and overcoming in school demand the intervention of teachers, who need to be able to bring students to the awareness of the moral content at stake in a situation of victimization: this requires teachers to know about values involved in this violence, sensitizing themselves to it. However, studies show that many teachers blame targets for situations of mistreatment or displace the responsibility of intervention for families: they use moral disengagement through which they reduce or refute the problem, making it impossible to overcome it. Thus, we aim to validate a research instrument capable of identifying the most recurrent forms of Disengagement or Moral Engagement manifested by teachers. After extensive review of the literature, two stories were developed characterizing situations involving typical and provocative target, followed by 14 evaluative items appropriate to the eight forms of Moral Disengagement defined by Bandura and three forms of Moral Engagement constructed for this research. After the Principal Components Analysis, the instrument was applied to a sample of 921 teachers from Brazilian and Spanish schools. The results demonstrated the acceptance of the proposed theoretical model, significant factorial loads in the different factors and adequate trustworthiness of the instrument.
  • ItemArtigo
    (Fundacao Univ Tocantins, 2020-11-01) Rodrigues Mendonca, Joao Guilherme; Rodrigues, Marlene; Marcal Ribeiro, Paulo Rennes [UNESP]; Univ Fed Rondonia UNIR; Grp Estudos Desenvolvimento & Cultura Corporal GE; Grp Pesquisa Multidisciplinar Educ & Infancia EDU; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Porto Velho is a city with a little more than one hundred years, which was born from a reality shaped by American builders from the conglomerate surrounding the construction of the Madeira-Mamore Railway (1907-1912). In its beginning, it presented, in addition to the orderly zone that kept engineers, employees and families safe, another scenario, represented by a rurality of forest, Far West city, populated in a disorderly way that called itself Porto Velho dos Brasileiros. A large railway construction site that received workers from various parts of the world and Brazil, as well as a huge contingent of women who, having arrived there, left a legacy of life that guaranteed the ever-increasing expansion of the number of inhabitants. Using oral history, we aim to connect the `scraps' of the world lived and experienced by these fearless pioneers. We found that the women of Porto Velho were faced with a kaleidoscope of needs, and responded to them in the best possible way. True heroines: single, married, prostitutes, washerwomen, healers, and many others; they are the mothers of the children of that city.