Artigos - Biologia - IBRC

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  • ItemArtigo
    Occurrence of Gregarines (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) in the Neotropical Soldierless Ruptitermes spp. (Isoptera, Termitidae, Apicotermitinae)
    (2022-12-01) Janei, Vanelize [UNESP]; Costa-Leonardo, Ana M. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This is the first record of gregarine infection in the worker midgut of the Neotropical termites Ruptitermes pitan and Ruptitermes reconditus. Gregarines have already been described in the gut and hemocoel in workers of other termite species, and although these protozoa are not able to kill these insects, they may affect their fitness. In the present study, gregarines were only observed in the gut lumen or linked to the midgut wall of termite workers. Histological sections of the worker midgut of Ruptitermes spp. showed three phases of the gregarine life cycle with the same individual worker displayed up to 4 gamonts and 2 trophozoites.
  • ItemArtigo
    Fungivorous mites enhance the survivorship and development of stingless bees even when exposed to pesticides
    (2022-12-01) Rosa-Fontana, Annelise S. [UNESP]; Dorigo, Adna Suelen [UNESP]; Malaquias, José Bruno; Pachú, Jéssica K. S.; Nocelli, Roberta C. F.; Tosi, Simone; Malaspina, Osmar [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar); University of Torino
    Stingless bees are the largest group of eusocial bees in the world. They play an essential role as crop pollinators and have been considered for inclusion in pesticide risk assessments (RAs). Beyond the mutualism involving stingless bee larvae and fungi, the fungivorous mite Proctotydaeus (Neotydeolus) alvearii proved to be interesting for studies of associations with stingless bees. Their presence is related to colony strength and health, showing a permanent-host-association level. Here, we tested whether the coexistence with P. (N.) alvearii affects stingless bee larvae survivorship and development, including when fed pesticide-dosed food. We chose dimethoate, the reference standard for toxicity tests, and thiamethoxam, widely used in neotropical crops and listed to be reassessed in RAs. Bees associated with the mites showed higher larval survivorship rates, even in the dosed ones, and revealed changes in the developmental time and body size. Our study represents the first approach to stingless bee responses to the coexistence of fungivorous mites inside brood cells, leading us to believe that these mites play a beneficial role in stingless bees, including when they are exposed to pesticides.
  • ItemArtigo
    Proteome profiling of methyl jasmonate elicitation of Maytenus ilicifolia in vitro roots reveals insights into sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids
    (2022-12-01) Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M. dos [UNESP]; Coppede, Juliana da Silva; Dias, Nathalia Batista; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Palma, Mario Sergio [UNESP]; Furlan, Maysa [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de Ribeirão Preto (UNAERP); Universidad de La Frontera (UFRO)
    Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) is an important medicinal plant widely used in Brazil and a rich source of sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids (SPAs) with relevant biological activities. They exhibit great chemical diversity and high structural complexity, and show accumulation in very low concentrations. Thus, to determine whether in vitro cultured adventitious roots of M. ilicifolia could provide alternative sources for the production of these compounds, the accumulation of SPAs ilicifoliunine A and aquifoliunine E-I, as well as the time of production and the content of these alkaloids were evaluated using methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as an elicitor. The results showed the accumulation ilicifoliunine A and aquifoliunine E-I and an increase in the contents of these alkaloids when elicited with MeJA at 7 and 28 days, respectively. To characterize and identify the proteins present in the enzymatic system and contribute to the understanding of the metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of SPAs, was carried out in vitro proteomic profiling of adventitious roots elicited and non-elicited with MeJA. The shotgun proteomic analyses led to the identification of important proteins involved in the biosynthetic pathway of SPAs, including germacrene A synthase, β-eudesmol synthase, and L-aspartate oxidase. Additionally, many proteins that participate in the biosynthesis of other alkaloids (e.g., tropane, pyrrolidine, terpenoid indole, and isoquinoline) and phenylpropanoids have been identified. In conclusion, the study report for the first time, proteins involved in the biosynthetic pathway of SPAs by using the adventitious roots in vitro system of M. ilicifolia and a shotgun proteomic approach.
  • ItemArtigo
    Post-embryonic development of the female reproductive system of the Neotropical termite Silvestritermes euamignathus (Isoptera: Termitidae: Syntermitinae)
    (2022-11-01) da Silva, Luiza Helena Bueno; Teixeira, Julia Ayumi Ando [UNESP]; Laranjo, Lara Teixeira [UNESP]; Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria [UNESP]; Vargo, Edward L.; Haifig, Ives; Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Texas A&M University
    In termites, the maturation of the female reproductive system is progressive following post-embryonic development. In Silvestritermes euamignathus, the imaginal line is characterized by five nymphal instars that develop into the imago, but it can deviate in some instars to neotenic reproductives. In order to understand the rate of development of the female reproductive system throughout post-embryonic development, we analyzed the morphology of the reproductive system of nymphs, characterizing the stage of development and comparing it with neotenics and primary queens. We also followed embryonic development and compared eggs from neotenics and primary queens from incipient and mature colonies. Our results showed that gonadal development follows the post-embryonic instars, and previtellogenic oocytes are present in third-instar nymphs and are retained for the next two successive nymphal instars. The full maturation of the ovaries with vitellogenic oocytes requires molting to either imagos or neotenics. Eggs from neotenics follow the same embryonic development and each stage presents similar volume when compared to those of mature primary queens. Eggs of primary queens from incipient colonies are greater in volume than those of mature primary queens and of neotenics, suggesting an investment in egg quality rather than quantity during colony foundation.
  • ItemArtigo
    Collection and Long-Term Maintenance of Leaf-Cutting Ants (Atta) in Laboratory Conditions
    (2022-08-01) Nogueira, Bianca Raissa [UNESP]; de Oliveira, Amanda Aparecida [UNESP]; da Silva, Janiele Pereira; Bueno, Odair Correa [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    Ants are one of the most biodiverse groups of animals on the planet and inhabit different environments. The maintenance of ant colonies in controlled environments enables an enriched comprehension of their biology that can contribute to applied research. This practice is usually employed in population control studies of species that cause economic loss, such as Atta ants. To cultivate their mutualistic fungus, these leaf-cutting ants collect leaves and for this are considered agricultural pests widely distributed throughout the American continent. They are highly socially organized and inhabit elaborated underground nests composed of a variety of chambers. Their maintenance in a controlled environment depends on a daily routine of several procedures and frequent care that are described here. It starts with the collection of queens during the reproductive season (i.e., nuptial flight), which are then individually transferred to plastic containers. Due to the high mortality rate of queens, a second collection can be carried out about 6 months after the nuptial flight, when incipient nests with developed fungus wad are excavated, hand-picked, and placed in plastic containers. In the laboratory, leaves are daily provided to established colonies, and ant-produced waste is weekly removed along with remaining dry plant material. As the fungus garden keeps growing, colonies are transferred to different types of containers according to the experimental purpose. Leaf-cutting ant colonies are placed in interconnected containers, representing the organizational system with functional chambers built by those insects in nature. This setup is ideal to monitor factors such as waste amount, fungus garden health, and the behavior of workers and queen. Facilitated data collection and more detailed observations are considered the greatest advantage of keeping ant colonies in controlled conditions.
  • ItemArtigo
    Thymol and eugenol against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato engorged females: Biological, histopathological and bioinformatic analysis
    (2023-07-01) Silva, Isabela Santos; Vale, Letícia; Coutinho, Ana Lúcia; Sousa, Lainny Jordana Martins Pereira e; Marchesini, Paula; da Silva Matos, Renata; Anholeto, Luís Adriano; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo [UNESP]; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Arruda, Walquiria; Monteiro, Caio; Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG); Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive biology and histopathology of the ovaries of engorged females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato exposed to combinations of thymol and eugenol, as well as to evaluate in silico the possible interactions of thymol and eugenol in tick cell membranes. To evaluate the tick reproductive biology, the adult immersion test (AIT) was performed, in which the engorged females were immersed in solutions of thymol and eugenol, combined or alone, at concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL. Two control groups (water and 3% DMSO) were also performed. The ticks were kept in a controlled chamber (B.O.D - 27 ± 1 °C and 80% ± 5% RH) to evaluate egg production and viability. To perform the ovaries histopathological evaluation, females were immersed in combination of thymol and eugenol (each at 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL) and control (water and 3% DMSO) solutions. After immersion, the females were kept in B.O.D (27 ± 1 °C and RH of 80% ± 5%) for four days, they were dissected and the ovaries processed for histological analysis. In addition, an in silico analysis was performed using PASS online® software to predict probability activity (PA) of thymol and eugenol in cell membranes. The treatment with the combination of thymol and eugenol (each at 5.0 mg/mL) caused a reduction (p < 0.01) in oviposition, while the treatments with thymol (5.0 mg/mL) and combination of thymol and eugenol (5.0 mg/mL) reduced (p < 0.05) the egg viability. The treatment with combination of thymol and eugenol (5.0 mg/mL) resulted in a control percentage of 99.9%, while in the other treatments, control percentages below 56% were observed. Oocytes from the females exposed to the combinations of thymol and eugenol (each compound at 2.5 mg/mL) showed histopathological changes, except on oocyte V, while those treated with these compounds alone at 2.5 mg/mL, did not reveal any change. Changes in the shape of the oocyte, presence of vacuoles in the cytoplasm and germinal vesicle, reduction and fusion of yolk granules and rupture of some oocytes were observed. In silico analysis, showed that these compounds can act as membrane permeability inhibitors, membrane permeability agonists, membrane integrity antagonists and apoptosis agonists. We conclude that the combination of thymol and eugenol causes changes in the reproductive biology and morphophysiology of engorged females oocytes. The in silico analysis using thymol and eugenol revealed the possibility of disorganization in the cell membranes, a fact that may explain the histopathological alterations observed.
  • ItemArtigo
    Ultrastructure of last larval instar fat body cells of Pachycondyla (= Neoponera) villosa (Formicidae: Ponerinae): cytochemical and chemical analysis
    (2003-01-01) José Zara, Fernando; Henrique Caetano, Flávio [UNESP]; Cabrera, Aivlé Cecilia G.; Jaffé, Klaus; UNIMEP; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB)
    The ultrastructure of the fat body cells (trophocytes) of the last larval instar of Pachycondyla (D Neoponera) villosa is presented. The cytoplasm is restricted to the cell periphery and to the smaller strips among the vacuoles, protein granules, lipid droplets, and around the nucleus. Cytochemically, the presence of basic amino acids in the protein granules and in the nuclei was observed by using the ethanolic phosphotungstic acid technique (EPTA). The lipid droplets stained for unsaturated lipids. This result was further confi rmed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, where the unsaturated fatty acids were identifi ed as oleic and linoleic acids together with saturated fatty acids such as palmitic and stearic acid. Carbohydrates (glycogen) were also detected in the fat body. The glycogen is present as ¯ particles distributed among the lipid droplets and sometimes attached to them.
  • ItemArtigo
    Genus Schismatothele Karsch, 1879 (Araneae, Theraphosidae): taxonomic notes and seven new species description
    (2023-03-06) Moeller, Wolf [UNESP]; Weinmann, Dirk; Guadanucci, José Paulo Leite [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Seven new species of Schismatothele Karsch, 1879 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) are described, almost doubling the diversity of the genus: S. caeri sp. nov.; S. caiquetia sp. nov.; S. merida sp. nov.; S. moonenorum sp. nov.; S. quimbaya sp. nov.; S. timotocuica sp. nov. and S. wayana sp. nov. An identification key for all species of Schismatothele (except S. kastoni) is presented, as well as a complementary diagnosis for the genus. Also, a standardized nomenclature is proposed to describe the prolateral keels of male palpal bulbs of species of Schismatothele.
  • ItemArtigo
    Termite exocrine systems: a review of current knowledge
    (2023-05-01) Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria [UNESP]; da Silva, Iago Bueno [UNESP]; Laranjo, Lara Teixeira [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    In this review, we summarize the 22 exocrine glands hitherto described for termites (Isoptera), highlighting their distribution, morphological features, and likely function. The secretion from such glands displays a very important role in termite communication, but is also attributed to many other activities performed by these insects, including defense, building, and foraging, as well as physiological processes such as the synthesis of digestive enzymes, and antiseptic and lubricant compounds. Here, glands are divided into those associated with termite mouthparts and other head appendages, tegumentary glands with epithelial arrangement, those related to the reproductive apparatus, and glands which do not fit into these divisions. The exocrine systems in termites may be composed of classes 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, which differ in how the glandular secretion is released. Moreover, they may exhibit a varied composition of secretory cell classes. Different glands may be involved in specific tasks and therefore produce specific compounds, although there are cases in which the same content is secreted by different glands, suggesting a functional plasticity. The chemical nature of these secretions and their role are well known for some glands, such as the frontal, salivary, tergal, and sternal ones. On the other hand, such aspects remain speculative or completely unknown for other glands. The number of termite exocrine glands is extremely low when compared to those described for eusocial Hymenoptera, and is a likely consequence of the higher diversity of species and chemical communication in the latter group. Moreover, vibroacoustic signals represent an important type of communication in termites. Further studies are encouraged to provide new insights into the occurrence and function of the exocrine systems in termites and how they modulate the different activities displayed by them.
  • ItemArtigo
    Understanding the seedling development in sedge species (Cyperaceae, Poales) from micromorphological and anatomical perspectives
    (2023-04-01) Silva, Lucimara Reis de Oliveira [UNESP]; Trevisan, Rafael; Oriani, Aline [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    Considering the representativeness and morphological diversity of Cyperaceae in grassland ecosystems, this study aimed to understand the early seedling development in Cyperus sesquiflorus, Lagenocarpus minarum, and Rhynchospora rugosa based on micromorphological and anatomical analyses. One hundred diaspores of each species studied that were collected in natural environments were placed to germinate under controlled conditions and analyzed every 24 h for one month. Samples at different stages of post-seminal development were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The final germination percentage was 68%, 36%, and 31%, respectively. Rhynchospora rugosa had the longest mean germination time (17.68 ± 0.99 days). Germination begins with the protrusion of the embryonic axis followed by the coleoptile in L. minarum, whereas in C. sesquiflorus and R. rugosa the coleoptile is the first structure to appear, forming a tubular structure that involves the shoot apical meristem. The shoot and root apical meristems become well-differentiated only after the beginning of germination. The results suggest a correlation between the post-seminal development and the resting embryo morphology. Considering the phylogenetic position of Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Thurniaceae within the cyperid clade, the coleoptile is most likely the derived condition in the clade and led to greater protection of the shoot apical meristem and the first plumular leaves in relation to the phaneromeric cotyledon present in Thurniaceae and Juncaceae.
  • ItemArtigo
    Immunodominant antibody responses directed to SARS-CoV-2 hotspot mutation sites and risk of immune escape
    (2023-01-05) Oliveira, Jamille Ramos; Ruiz, Cesar Manuel Remuzgo; Machado, Rafael Rahal Guaragna; Magawa, Jhosiene Yukari; Daher, Isabela Pazotti; Urbanski, Alysson Henrique; Schmitz, Gabriela Justamante Händel; Arcuri, Helen Andrade [UNESP]; Ferreira, Marcelo Alves; Sasahara, Greyce Luri; de Medeiros, Giuliana Xavier; Júnior, Roberto Carlos Vieira Silva; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Boscardin, Silvia Beatriz; Rosa, Daniela Santoro; Schechtman, Deborah; Nakaya, Helder I.; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Kalil, Jorge; Coelho, Verônica; Santos, Keity Souza; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Instituto Nacional de Ciências e Tecnologia (iii-INCT); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein; Paris Lodron University Salzburg
    Introduction: Considering the likely need for the development of novel effective vaccines adapted to emerging relevant CoV-2 variants, the increasing knowledge of epitope recognition profile among convalescents and afterwards vaccinated with identification of immunodominant regions may provide important information. Methods: We used an RBD peptide microarray to identify IgG and IgA binding regions in serum of 71 COVID-19 convalescents and 18 vaccinated individuals. Results: We found a set of immunodominant RBD antibody epitopes, each recognized by more than 30% of the tested cohort, that differ among the two different groups and are within conserved regions among betacoronavirus. Of those, only one peptide, P44 (S415-429), recognized by 68% of convalescents, presented IgG and IgA antibody reactivity that positively correlated with nAb titers, suggesting that this is a relevant RBD region and a potential target of IgG/IgA neutralizing activity. Discussion: This peptide is localized within the area of contact with ACE-2 and harbors the mutation hotspot site K417 present in gamma (K417T), beta (K417N), and omicron (K417N) variants of concern. The epitope profile of vaccinated individuals differed from convalescents, with a more diverse repertoire of immunodominant peptides, recognized by more than 30% of the cohort. Noteworthy, immunodominant regions of recognition by vaccinated coincide with mutation sites at Omicron BA.1, an important variant emerging after massive vaccination. Together, our data show that immune pressure induced by dominant antibody responses may favor hotspot mutation sites and the selection of variants capable of evading humoral response.
  • ItemResenha
    Beyond the “empty forest”: The defaunation syndromes of Neotropical forests in the Anthropocene
    (2023-01-01) Pires, Mathias M. [UNESP]; Galetti, Mauro [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Florida International University (FIU)
    Human activities have altered the abundance and distribution of animals, reshaping ecosystems into novel and generally more depauperate configurations. Whereas, overhunting and habitat loss threaten numerous species, predation release and subsidies from agriculture and food waste benefit others. Although these impacts combined can generate multiple different outcomes, we propose that, depending on the prevalence of different anthropogenic drivers, mammalian communities are pushed towards one of three main defaunation syndromes: Herbivore-dominated, seed predator-dominated or mesopredator-dominated systems. The extirpation of top predators favors herbivore-dominated assemblages, while habitat loss and overhunting eliminate large-bodied herbivores, resulting in the dominance of smaller-bodied seed predators and mesopredators. Within fragmented landscapes where top predators are absent, mesopredator-dominated systems emerge supported by food subsidies from the surrounding agricultural matrix. Based on a large dataset of camera-trap studies, we show that continuous Neotropical forests with top predators exhibit a greater balance between these guilds and landscape structure explain composition variation according to these syndromes. The prevalence of one guild over others has profound effects on ecological processes, threatening ecosystem services and human health and may be the dominant scenario in the Anthropocene.
  • ItemArtigo
    Leaf size and thickness are related to frost damage in ground layer species of Neotropical savannas
    (2023-02-01) de Antonio, Ariadne Cristina [UNESP]; Scalon, Marina Corrêa; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR)
    Savannas in southeastern Brazil are frequently exposed to frost events, causing the death of leaves and branches in many woody and herbaceous species. Frost events are frequent in these regions, with one relatively stronger than usual event every 5 years. Our experimental site at São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil, was affected by strong frost events during June–July 2021, when temperatures reached -4 °C, causing aboveground dieback in most ground layer species, although we observed some species were not affected and maintained a fully green canopy. We used this opportunistic frost event to study and report these damages and measured leaf traits that could explain our observations, as well as point directions to ecological understanding of frost on savanna vegetation. We measured morphological leaf traits such as leaf shape (width, length, width to length ratio), leaf area, specific leaf area and leaf thickness, and we also quantified canopy and leaf damage in 17 species (5 non-affected by frost and 12 that were visually affected). We found that species with larger and thicker leaves were more prone to leaf and canopy damage (70–100% of damage) than those with smaller and thinner leaves (0% damage). These results suggest that leaf morphology may provide resistance against frost and could ultimately act as a filter favoring species that can support extreme frost events, if those became more frequent and stronger under future climatic changes.
  • ItemArtigo
    A new Octomeria (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) and nomenclatural notes for related Southern Brazilian species
    (2022-11-15) Dos Santos, Thiago Faria [UNESP]; De Brito, Antonio Luiz Vieira Toscano; De Camargo Smidt, Eric; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR); Marie Selby Botanical Gardens; Harvard University Herbaria
    Octomeria imigiae is proposed as a new species from the Atlantic Rainforest of South Brazil. It is described, illustrated, and compared with sympatric and similar species. An identification key is provided. The new species is recognised by its reptant growth habit and tiny yellow flowers. It is similar to Octomeria chamaeleptotes and several other terete-leaved species from which it can be easily distinguished by its vegetative and floral morphology. Octomeria riograndensis and Octomeria sancti-angeli are proposed as new synonyms of Octomeria chamaeleptotes, and typification designations for this complex are made.
  • ItemArtigo
    Mating mediates morphophysiological changes in the spermathecae of Coptotermes gestroi queens
    (2023-05-01) da Silva, Iago Bueno [UNESP]; Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Insect spermathecae play a crucial role in sperm storage and maintenance prior to egg fertilization. Within eusocial insects, this structure is well studied in the Hymenoptera, whose queens copulate during a short period early in life and store sperm for up to decades. Within Isoptera, sperm storage and maintenance inside the spermatheca are poorly understood, especially due to the presence of a sperm-providing king. Here, we compared the morphometric and morphophysiological features of the spermathecae of virgin and mated queens of the invasive termite Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The spermatheca comprises a finger-shaped reservoir divided into two regions and a duct limited by a narrow transition. The superficial spermatheca area, as well as the luminal area, increase significantly after insemination, even among queens whose reproductive activity was reduced, suggesting that sperm storage continues during such conditions. The secretion of proteins and polysaccharides into the spermathecal lumen was a remarkable feature for both virgin and 4-year-old queens, although the concentration of the secreted content increased in the latter group. It suggests that spermatheca activation occurs before pairing, but its secretory activity intensifies to nourish and provide energy for the stored spermatozoa. Ultrastructure of the spermathecal epithelium showed a bicellular unit, composed of a secretory cell and associated canal cells. Secretory vesicles of various electron densities were observed next to the receiving canal of the secretory cells in both virgin and 2-year-old queens. Nevertheless, strongly electron-dense vesicles were only recorded for mated queens, which were associated with the increasing synthesis of proteins. The occurrence of rough endoplasmic reticulum and richness of mitochondria reinforces the protein synthesis and transport of contents towards the spermathecal lumen. In conclusion, the spermatheca of C. gestroi undergoes morphometric and physiological changes after mating, and further analysis may provide insights into the chemical nature of the spermathecal secretion prior to and after this event.
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    Iron biofortification in quinoa: Effect of iron application methods on nutritional quality, anti-nutrient composition, and grain productivity
    (2023-03-15) Lata-Tenesaca, Luis Felipe [UNESP]; de Mello Prado, Renato [UNESP]; Ajila-Celi, Gabriela Eugenia [UNESP]; da Silva, Dalila Lopes; Junior, José Sidnaldo Pinzetta [UNESP]; Mattiuz, Ben-Hur [UNESP]; Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    Biofortification of iron (Fe) in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) grains should have benefits for human health and food security. However, effects of this approach on productivity, as well as Fe content and grain quality remain unknown. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the impacts of different methods of Fe delivery in a hydroponic system, root application (90 µmol/L), foliar spraying (9 mmol/L), combined root and foliar application, and control (no Fe). Foliar Fe application in four applications at vegetative and reproductive stages stood out from root application in promoting quinoa growth and productivity, perhaps because of greater accumulation of Fe in the plants, leading to increased photosynthetic pigments and electron transport. Foliar application of Fe also improved grain quality, as it was associated with higher Fe contents, ascorbic acid (AsA), total proteins, and manganese (Mn). In addition, there was a decrease in antinutritional compounds and phosphorus (P) in grains. Foliar Fe application can be an efficient agronomic practice to obtain Fe-biofortified quinoa grains and was associated with improved physiological responses and productivity.
  • ItemArtigo
    Functional Morphology and Development of the Colleterial Glands in Non- and Egg-Laying Females of the Pest Termite Coptotermes gestroi (Blattaria, Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae)
    (Oxford Univ Press, 2023-03-31) Silva, Iago Bueno da [UNESP]; Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Colleterial glands of female insects are accessory glands responsible for producing secretions associated with egg-laying. Within Dictyoptera, they synthesize compounds of the ootheca. However, their morphology and role in termites are poorly understood. Here, we compared the morphology, development, and secretory activity of the colleterial glands between non- and egg-laying females of the pest termite Coptotermes gestroi under light and transmission electron microscopy. We also provide the first description of these glands for Rhinotermitidae. The glands are paired, divided into anterior and posterior units, which join in a common duct via basal trunks. They are highly developed within egg-laying females, especially the posterior gland, secreting glycoproteins to lubricate the genital chamber and/or stick the eggs together. Ultrastructure revealed glandular epithelia composed of bicellular units of Class 3, whose secretory activity varied between groups and units. Posterior gland of egg-laying females showed richness of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and secretory vesicles, including electron-dense secretory granules, indicating synthesis and transport of contents, especially proteins. The basal trunks were enfolded by muscles, supporting their role in conducting secretion. Morphophysiological modifications occur in the colleterial glands as females mature and lay eggs, and the mechanisms underlying the secretory cycle of the glands are discussed.
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    Novel viruses of the family Partitiviridae discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    (Public Library Science, 2023-06-01) Taggart, Nathan T. E.; Crabtree, Angela M. A.; Creagh, Jack W. M.; Bizarria, Rodolfo M. [UNESP]; Li, Shunji; la Higuera, Ignacio A. de; Barnes, Jonathan E.; Shipley, Mason A.; Boyer, Josephine M.; Stedman, Kenneth M.; Ytreberg, F. Marty; Rowley, Paul A.; Univ Idaho; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Portland State Univ
    It has been 49 years since the last discovery of a new virus family in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A large-scale screen to determine the diversity of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses in S. cerevisiae has identified multiple novel viruses from the family Partitiviridae that have been previously shown to infect plants, fungi, protozoans, and insects. Most S. cerevisiae partitiviruses (ScPVs) are associated with strains of yeasts isolated from coffee and cacao beans. The presence of partitiviruses was confirmed by sequencing the viral dsRNAs and purifying and visualizing isometric, non-enveloped viral particles. ScPVs have a typical bipartite genome encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and a coat protein (CP). Phylogenetic analysis of ScPVs identified three species of ScPV, which are most closely related to viruses of the genus Cryspovirus from the mammalian pathogenic protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum. Molecular modeling of the ScPV RdRP revealed a conserved tertiary structure and catalytic site organization when compared to the RdRPs of the Picornaviridae. The ScPV CP is the smallest so far identified in the Partitiviridae and has structural homology with the CP of other partitiviruses but likely lacks a protrusion domain that is a conspicuous feature of other partitivirus particles. ScPVs were stably maintained during laboratory growth and were successfully transferred to haploid progeny after sporulation, which provides future opportunities to study partitivirus-host interactions using the powerful genetic tools available for the model organism S. cerevisiae. Author summaryThis article describes the discovery and characterization of multiple strains and species of viruses from the family Partitiviridae in the brewer's and baker's yeast S. cerevisiae. These novel viruses have bipartite genomes packaged in spherical viral particles with structural homology to members of the family Partitiviridae. Strikingly, yeast partitiviruses are most closely related to viruses from human pathogenic protozoa and not partitiviruses of other fungi. As partitiviruses can positively and negatively contribute to a host's physiology (including important human and plant pathogens), the presence of partitiviruses in S. cerevisiae offers a unique opportunity to study the biology of these viruses in a well-developed model system.
  • ItemArtigo
    High abscisic acid and low root hydraulic conductivity may explain low leaf hydration in 'Mandarin' lime exposed to aluminum
    (Oxford Univ Press, 2022-11-09) Silva, Giselle Schwab [UNESP]; Gavassi, Marina Alves [UNESP]; Carvalho, Brenda Mistral de Oliveira [UNESP]; Habermann, Gustavo [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The first symptom of aluminum (Al) toxicity is the inhibition of root growth, which has been associated with low leaf hydration, with negative consequences for leaf gas exchange including stomatal conductance (g(s)) observed in many plant species. Here we asked whether low leaf hydration occurs before or after the inhibition of root growth of Citrus x limonia Osbeck ('Mandarin' lime) cultivated for 60 days in nutrient solution with 0 and 1480 mu M Al. The length, diameter, surface area and biomass of roots of plants exposed to Al were lower than control plants only at 30 days after treatments (DAT). Until the end of the study, estimated g(s) (measured by sap flow techniques) was lower than in control plants from 3 DAT, total plant transpiration (E-plant) and root hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) at 7 DAT, and midday leaf water potential (psi md) and relative leaf water content at 15 DAT. Abscisic acid (ABA) in leaves was twofold higher in Al-exposed plants 1 DAT, and in roots a twofold higher peak was observed at 15 DAT. As ABA in leaves approached values of control plants after 15 DAT, we propose that low g(s) of plants exposed to Al is primarily caused by ABA, and the maintenance of low g(s) could be ascribed to the low Lp(r) from 7 DAT until the end of the study. Therefore, the low leaf hydration in 'Mandarin' lime exposed to Al does not seem to be caused by root growth inhibition or by a simple consequence of low water uptake due to a stunted root system.
  • ItemArtigo
    Dealing with Fragmentation and Road Effects in Highly Degraded and Heterogeneous Landscapes
    (De Gruyter Open Ltd, 2016-01-01) Ribeiro, Milton Cezar [UNESP]; Muylaert, Renata de Lara [UNESP]; Dodonov, Pavel; Ciocheti, Giordano [UNESP]; Magioli, Marcelo; Martello, Felipe [UNESP]; Rocha, Alessandro [UNESP]; Borges, Bruno Defane [UNESP]; Carvalho, Carolina [UNESP]; Kanda, Claudia Zukeran [UNESP]; Rodriguez-Castro, Karen G.; GhelerCosta, C.; LyraJorge, M. C.; Verdade, L. M.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Santa Cruz State Univ UESC; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar)