Artigos - Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinária - FCAV

URI Permanente para esta coleção


Submissões Recentes

Agora exibindo 1 - 20 de 1046
  • ItemArtigo
    Effect of Citrus Pellet on Extrusion Parameters, Kibble Macrostructure, Starch Cooking and In Vitro Digestibility of Dog Foods
    (2023-02-01) Cucinotta, Salvatore; Oteri, Marianna; Baller, Mayara Aline [UNESP]; Scarpim, Lucas Bassi [UNESP]; Goloni, Camila [UNESP]; Chiofalo, Biagina; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri [UNESP]; University of Messina; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Fiber supplemented extruded foods are produced by pet food companies to help with several specific health conditions. The fiber material, however, is difficult to incorporate efficiently into dry kibble diets for dogs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of citrus pulp pellet (CPP), the solid waste part of the production of orange juice characterized by a good proportion of soluble and fermentable fiber, on extrusion traits, kibble macrostructure, starch gelatinization and in vitro digestibility of dog foods. A control formula (CO) was developed for dogs. CPP was added to CO at different inclusion levels: 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Foods were extruded in a single screw extruder using two different die diameters (dd): 5 mm and 7 mm. CPP inclusion with 5 mm dd did not affect bulk and piece density and resulted in a lower impact on kibble expansion; It also resulted in greater starch gelatinization and kibble expansion compared to the 7 mm dd configuration (p < 0.01). In addition to the nutritional implications, recycling and proper uses of this material exemplified in the present study by the exploration of CPP as a fiber source to dogs, this method can improve sustainable agriculture by transforming low-quality materials into high-quality foods.
  • ItemArtigo
    Acute phase proteins levels in horses, after a single carbohydrate overload, associated with cecal alkalinization
    (2023-02-02) Peixoto Rabelo, Isabela [UNESP]; Barroco de Paula, Vanessa [UNESP]; Carvalho Bustamante, Caio [UNESP]; Santana, André Marcos; Gomes da Silva, Daniela [UNESP]; Baldassi, Amanda Cristina [UNESP]; Canola, Paulo Aléscio [UNESP]; Araújo Valadão, Carlos Augusto [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Maringá State University
    Introduction: Horses submitted to carbohydrate overload can develop laminitis due to changes in cecal pH and microbiota, followed by an increase in transmural absorption of luminal content, including bacterial toxins. In response to acute injury there is hepatic overproduction of several proteins known as acute phase proteins (APP). Few studies have evaluated protein fractionation to characterize the inflammatory response in acute laminitis. The aim of this study was to test the viability of an experimental model to induce acute laminitis, using a single carbohydrate overload, and the influence of a buffering solution on the development of the disease; also, study the kinetics of APP during acute laminitis, as well as the correlation between these proteins and clinical signs associated to this syndrome. Methods: Ten healthy horses were divided in a factorial and randomized way into four groups (n = 5): control group (CG), starch group (SG), buffer group (BG), and starch C buffer group (SBG). They were evaluated at seven times (T0h, T4h, T8h, T12h, T24h, T48h, and T72h), which included clinical evaluation and blood sample collection. Total serum protein and albumin concentrations were determined by colorimetry and the other APP by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing sodium dodecyl sulfate and commercial ELISA kits. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The correlation between clinical signs and APP were verified using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results and discussion: 40% of the animals from SG and 60% from SBG developed clinical laminitis. A single administration of buffer solution was not able to prevent clinical signs of laminitis. There was no difference between groups on total serum protein, albumin, serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein concentrations (p > 0.05). Transferrin, considered a negative APP, showed a positive response pattern in SG and SBG. Ceruloplasmin had a positive correlation with Obel grade, heart rate on animals from SGB and number of steps on horses submitted to starch overload (SG and SBG). Ceruloplasmin, α-1-antitrypsin and haptoglobin concentrations increased in SBG, suggesting an inflammatory response in animals of this group. Changes in clinical parameters were also more evident in the SBG, corroborating the protein fractionation findings.
  • ItemArtigo
    Use of omentum flap for induction of free skin graft healing
    (2022-01-01) Pascoli, A. L. [UNESP]; Reis Filho, N. P. [UNESP]; Ferreira, M. G.P.A. [UNESP]; Viéra, R. B. [UNESP]; Negrão, S. L.; Yamada, D. I. [UNESP]; Magalhães, G. M.; Uscategui, R. A.R. [UNESP]; Barata, J. S. [UNESP]; Laus, J. L. [UNESP]; De Nardi, A. B. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB); Universidade de Franca; Universidad CES
    The objective of this study was to assess healing induction of free skin grafts following transposition of omental flap through a subcutaneous tunnel to the recipient bed. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations were performed. Nineteen piglets were used. Two surgical wounds were created of each subject. The graft removed from the left side (LS) was placed on the right side (RS) without the omental flap in the graft-bed (control group-CG). On the LS, an omental flap was placed between the graft removed from the RS and the recipient bed (omentum group-OG). Macroscopic evaluations showed edema, which gradually decreased on both groups. Suture dehiscence was highest at day 10 compared to other days in both groups. The CG had a higher incidence of unvitalized tissue compared to OG, although no difference was found among days of postoperative evaluation. The presence of unvitalized tissue was seen on 32% on OG and 53% on CG. Microscopic evaluations revealed higher collagenization, reepithelization, keratinization and less swelling in the OG compared to CG. In conclusion, mesh skin grafts evolved satisfactorily in swine even in newly created bedding without granulation tissue, but with appropriate vascularization. The omentum flap provided better macroscopic and microscopic outcomes regarding graft integration
  • ItemArtigo
    Effects of Starch Overload and Cecal Buffering on Fecal Microbiota of Horses
    (2022-12-01) Bustamante, Caio C. [UNESP]; de Paula, Vanessa B. [UNESP]; Rabelo, Isabela P. [UNESP]; Fernandes, Camila C. [UNESP]; Kishi, Luciano T. [UNESP]; Canola, Paulo A. [UNESP]; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes de M. [UNESP]; Valadão, Carlos Augusto A. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Starch overload in horses causes gastrointestinal and metabolic disorders that are associated with microbiota changes. Therefore, we identified the fecal microbiota and hypothesized that intracecal injection of alkaline solution (buffer; Mg(OH)2 + Al(OH)3) could stabilize these microbiota and clinical changes in horses submitted to corn starch overload. Ten crossbred horses (females and geldings) were allocated to group I (water–saline and starch–buffer treatments) and group II (water–buffer and starch–saline treatments). Clinical signs, gross analysis of the feces, and fecal microbiota were evaluated through 72 h (T0; T8; T12; T24; T48; T72). Corn starch or water were administrated by nasogastric tube at T0, and the buffer injected into the cecum at T8 in starch–buffer and water–buffer treatments. Starch overload reduced the richness (p < 0.001) and diversity (p = 0.001) of the fecal microbiota. However, the starch–buffer treatment showed greater increase in amylolytic bacteria (Bifidobacterium 0.0% to 5.6%; Lactobacillus 0.1% to 7.4%; p < 0.05) and decrease in fibrolytic bacteria (Lachnospiraceae 10.2% to 5.0%; Ruminococcaceae 11.7% to 4.2%; p < 0.05) than starch–saline treatment. Additionally, animals that received starch–buffer treatment showed more signs of abdominal discomfort and lameness associated with dysbiosis (amylolytic r > 0.5; fribolytic r < 0.1; p < 0.05), showing that cecal infusion of buffer did not prevent, but intensified intestinal disturbances and the risk of laminitis.
  • ItemArtigo
    Effect of Lactate Minimum Speed-Guided Conditioning on Selected Blood Parameters of Horses
    (2022-12-01) Santos, Maíra Moreira [UNESP]; Benvenuto, Guilherme Vechiato [UNESP]; Ramos, Gabriel Vieira [UNESP]; Titotto, Angélica Cristina [UNESP]; Adão, Milena dos Santos [UNESP]; de Lacerda, Luciana de Cenço Corrêa [UNESP]; Lisbôa, Júlio Augusto Naylor; Lacerda-Neto, José Corrêa de [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL)
    During exercise, equines can suffer severe water and electrolyte imbalances depending on the intensity and duration. In this sense, conditioning aims to promote adaptations to the organism in order to maintain cardiovascular and thermoregulatory stability during exertion. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of conditioning guided by lactate minimum speed (LMS) test on the blood osmolality of horses. We hypothesized that after conditioning the blood osmolality would vary less during exercise and that LMS could be used in equine conditioning program. Ten Arabian horses were evaluated before (ET 1) and after (ET 2) 6 weeks of conditioning. The conditioning intensity was established from the LMS during ET 1. The blood was obtained at rest and during the ETs. An increase in LMS and a decrease in lactate were seen in individual horses; however, these differences were not significant at a group level. No change in blood osmolality was observed when comparing the ETs. The plasma volume remained unchanged in ET 2. The conditioning guided by LMS improved the animals’ fitness, which was evidenced by the lower lactate production in ET 2. The fact that the osmolality kept unchanged proves the effectiveness of the osmotic blood balance during exercise, as its control involves the interaction of different systems. Body adaptations occurred with conditioning, providing greater homeostasis control since the plasma volume remained stable in ET 2. It was concluded that the LMS test can be used to define an effective equine conditioning program even though some adjustments are still necessary.
  • ItemArtigo
    True vaginal prolapse associated with retroflection of the urinary bladder in a bitch
    (2023-03-01) Beretta, Samara; Apparício, Maricy; de Castro Moraes, Paola; Ribeiro, Camila Vasconcelos; Estevam, Marina Vilela; Smargiassi, Nathalia Franzoni; Maronezi, Marjury Cristina; Bonacin, Yuri da Silva; Toniollo, Gilson Hélio; Gimenes, Lindsay Unno; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    True vaginal prolapse is rare in bitches and is most likely to occur near whelping. A 2-year-old intact female Brazilian mastiff, 39.5 kg, had a true vaginal prolapse associated with urinary bladder retroflection; the female was in estrus, and concomitantly had diarrhea for 3 d, plus vaginal hyperplasia, and ultimately a vaginal prolapse. Ultrasound examination and retrograde urethrocystography were extremely important for detection and identification of the position (retroflection) of the urinary bladder within the prolapsed vagina. These tools, therefore, are recommended for a conclusive diagnosis and surgical planning, to avoid trans- and postoperative complications, e.g., urethral damage or bladder rupture. Prompt diagnosis and surgical correction enabled a favorable prognosis and rapid postoperative recovery, avoiding complications or ultimately death of the dog.
  • ItemArtigo
    Histone epigenetic modifications and their relationship with cancer: A comparative medicine view
    (2023-01-01) Senhorello, Igor Luiz Salardani; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela [UNESP]; Universidade Vila Velha (UVV); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Epigenetic modifications have become highly important in the study of cancer pathogenesis due to research showing that changes in the expression of DNA-associated proteins can affect gene expression but may be reversible after treatment. The changing histones are being studied on a large scale in medicine while recent studies also show this relationship in veterinary medicine. Histone deacetylation is related to tumor progression and overexpression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is responsible for these changes. The silencing of tumor suppressor genes related to epigenetic changes favors tumor progression; however, using HDAC inhibitors has been shown to effectively reverse these histone changes while having anticancer effects. This research provided an overview of comparative medicine between humans and dogs concerning epigenetic changes while showing the physiological mechanisms and the relationship between cancer and epigenetics, specifically regarding histone acetylation and deacetylation. This overview should contribute to a better understanding of epigenetics and cancer and their relationship with new target-molecular therapies in veterinary medicine and the importance of such studies.
  • ItemArtigo
    Maternal and fetal ultrasonography, vulvar temperature and vaginal mucous impedance for the prediction of parturition in Saanen does
    (2023-01-01) Del’Aguila-Silva, Priscila [UNESP]; dos Santos, Fabiana Cirino [UNESP]; Aires, Luiz Paulo Nogueira [UNESP]; Uscategui, Ricardo Andres Ramirez; Amoroso, Lizandra [UNESP]; Vicente, Wilter Ricardo Russiano [UNESP]; Feliciano, Marcus Antônio Rossi; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidad CES; Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate modifications of vaginal mucous impedance, vulvar temperature and ultrasonographic measurements (echobiometric parameters) to parturition in pregnant Saanen does. 30 does were selected for the study and submitted to an estrus synchronization protocol and natural mating. The females were evaluated daily from Day 143 of pregnancy to parturition. For the sonographic evaluations, the following structures were measured: biparietal diameter, thoracic diameter, abdominal diameter, ocular orbit, kidney length, kidney height, cardiac area, placentome length, cervical measurement and fetal heart rate; by means of two different approaches: transrectal and transabdominal, using a 7.5 MHz linear transducer. The vaginal mucous impedance was assessed using an electric estrous detector and vulvar temperature was measured using a non-contact infrared thermometer. Statistical analysis was performed using the R-project software and the significance level was set at 5% for all tests. 25 Saanen does became pregnant, resulting in 80.33% pregnancy rate. Fetal heart rate was negatively correlated to the hours to parturition (p<0,001; r-Pearson= -0,451), as well as vaginal temperature (p= 0,001; r-Pearson= -0,275), while cervical thickness was positively correlated to hours to parturition (p<0,001; r-Pearson= 0,490). The echobiometric parameters (biparietal diameter, thoracic diameter, abdominal diameter, ocular orbit, kidney length and height, cardiac area, placentome length), as well as vaginal mucous impedance did not vary throughout the timepoints of evaluation and did not correlate to the moment of parturition. It was concluded that the parameters of fetal heartbeat, vaginal temperature and cervical effacement in the last week of pregnancy provide valuable information regarding the proximity of parturition.
  • ItemArtigo
    Repair of the axial dorsal skin flap in rats treated with ozonized oil
    (2023-01-01) Nakamura, Aline Medeiros [UNESP]; da Costa, Marcelo Carrijo [UNESP]; Gómez, Jorge Luis Álvarez [UNESP]; de Paiva, Felipe Noleto [UNESP]; De Nardi, Andrigo Barboza [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Axial pattern flap represents an important option in reconstructive surgery, consisting of an artery and a direct cutaneous vein at their base and allowing a large area of skin to form the flap to cover the wound. However, the technique can present complications, mostly necrosis due to vascular involvement. In this context, ozone therapy can be used to accelerate the healing process of poorly vascularized and contaminated wounds. The objective of this article was to evaluate the effects and repair of the dorsal axial flap in Wistar rats at the receiving bed, using treatment with high-peroxidation ozonized oil. The study was carried out with 18 rats, divided into two groups with 9 animals: GG group (common sunflower oil) and GO group (ozonized sunflower oil). During the experimental period, macroscopic and microscopic evaluations were carried out, in order to observe the healing and repair of the surgical wound. Data were submitted to statistical analysis. The cosmetic appearance on GO was significantly better than GG. Blood vessel count, hemorrhage and reepithelialization were significantly higher in GO when compared to GG, while the presence of necrosis did not differ between groups. The mean total area of the flaps between the groups was statistically different, higher in the flaps in GO. The results showed that the use of ozonized oil in an axial pattern flap results in a favorable appearance and better reepithelialization in the treated group.
  • ItemArtigo
    Concomitant occurrence of multicentric hemangiosarcoma and histiocytic sarcoma in a dog
    (2023-03-01) Gouveia, Bethânia Almeida [UNESP]; Perossi, Isabela Fernanda Spinelli [UNESP]; da Silva, Marina Carla Bezerra [UNESP]; Martinelli, Paulo Edson Baptista [UNESP]; Ramos, Fernanda Ramalho [UNESP]; De Nardi, Andrigo Barboza [UNESP]; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri de Oliveira [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is uncommon malignant neoplasia of round cells with marked predilection in Rottweiler and Bernese Mountain. The disseminated form, which mainly affects the spleen, lungs, lymph nodes, bone marrow, skin, and subcutis, presents a quick and aggressive clinical behavior. Hemangiosarcoma (HAS) is a malignant neoplasm of endothelial vessel cells commonly reported to affect the right atrium of dogs’ hearts. A male Rottweiler, five years old, presented flaccid paraplegia and progressive muscular atrophy in the temporal, masseter, and limbs muscles; Due to the clinical stage of the animal, euthanasia was conducted. During the necroscopic examination, it was noticed that several masses presented different sizes; some were whitish, and others were reddish and spread in multiple organs (lungs, heart, spleen, stomach, kidneys, brain, medulla, skeletal muscle, and pre-scapular lymph node). Microscopically, in some organs such as the stomach, right ventricle, lungs, and medulla, it was noticed a proliferation of myeloid cells, highly cellular, with poor demarcation, no encapsulation, and with the infiltrative growth pattern of cells with high pleomorphism. Numerous tumoral emboli were observed in the spleen, brain, skeletal muscle, and lymph node. These cells were submitted for immunohistochemistry and were positive for CD18 (HS antibody). In the right atrium, liver, and kidney it was observed malignant and infiltrative endothelial proliferation (HSA) and emboli in the medulla. Therefore, we conclude that both neoplasms (HS and HSA) cause the animal’s paraplegia due to their embolism and metastasis to the spinal cord and skeletal muscle.
  • ItemArtigo
    Topical application of gentamicin or cephalothin in the healing of surgical wounds in dogs
    (2022-01-01) Minto, Bruno Watanabe [UNESP]; Pazzini, Josiane Morais; Kawamoto, Fernando Yoiti Kitamura [UNESP]; Franco, Guilherme Galhardo [UNESP]; Borsaro, Camila Portério [UNESP]; Zanato, Laura [UNESP]; Castro do Nascimento Hama, Lismara [UNESP]; Amoroso, Lizandra [UNESP]; Magalhães, Thaís Vendramini [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); UNILAGO
    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of local administration of gentamicin or cephalothin on the healing of surgical wounds in dogs. Thirty healthy dogs were submitted to surgical castration. They were divided into 2 groups of 15 animals. After the surgical procedure, two 0.6 cm circular cutaneous wounds were made in the abdominal region. Group 1 received 0.1 ml of 0.9% saline in one wound and 0.1 ml of gentamicin (40 mg / ml) in the other wound; and group 2 received 0.1 ml of 0.9% saline and 0.1 ml of cephalothin (200 mg / ml); respectively. All wounds were sutured and assessed macroscopically 1, 3 and 10 days after the operation. On day 10, an incisional biopsy was performed for histopathological evaluation. All analyzes of macroscopic variables did not show significant differences between groups (P <0.05). There were no significant differences between groups for microscopic evaluation of collagenization, vascularization, edema and inflammatory cells (P <0.05). Thus, the topical use of the tested antibiotics does not influence skin healing in dogs.
  • ItemArtigo
    Iron interference in hemoglobin production in piglets from birth to weaning
    (2023-01-01) Cruz, Nathan R.N. [UNESP]; Baraldi, Thaís G. [UNESP]; Marinho Neto, Fausto A. [UNESP]; Alvarenga, Patrícia V.A. [UNESP]; Oliveira, Juliana P. [UNESP]; Albuquerque, Ana C.A. [UNESP]; Brito, Helena C.D. [UNESP]; Nascimento, Larissa A.B. [UNESP]; Oliveira, Luís G. [UNESP]; Santana, Aureo E. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in humans is defined as the decrease of total hemoglobin concentration and the non-production of the adult hemoglobin subtype 2 - HbA2 (α2δ2 chains), which is considered a marker of IDA severity in humans, dosed together with the iron serum. This study aimed to determine the standard of hemoglobin types in piglets induced to experimentally IDA in the first 21 days of life (delivery to weaning). In the present study, 40 piglets born from four naïve gilts, were randomly and equally assigned among the gilts. On the third day after delivery, the groups were randomly distributed in different environments (cement and clay floors) and according to the iron supplementation (iron dextran and placebo). Erythrocyte parameters, serum iron, and hemoglobin trait were analyzed at four moments between birth and weaning days. The group of piglets that did not receive iron dextran supplementation on the third-day post-birth and were placed in the pen without soil did not present HbA2 from the seventh day onwards on the agarose electrophoretogram (pH 8.6) and this observation was correlated to decrease of serum iron (ρ: 0.156, p=0.003) when compared to the other groups' piglets that did not present iron deficiency. In the present study was possible to determine the swine hemoglobin pattern in IDA, since HbA2 was absent in piglets with IDA in comparison to the non-ferropenic groups and the correlation between the reduction of iron levels and the absence of HbA2.
  • ItemArtigo
    Intake of energy, protein, amino acids and minerals by dogs under energy restriction for body weight loss when fed with commercial weight loss diets
    (2023-05-01) Luis, Leticia W. [UNESP]; Goloni, Camila [UNESP]; Theodoro, Stephanie de Souza [UNESP]; Tozato, Maria E. G. [UNESP]; Pacheco, Leticia G. [UNESP]; Monti, Mariana; Carciofi, Aulus C. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo
    This retrospective study evaluated energy and nutrient intake of dogs in a weight loss programme. Ninety-four obese dogs were divided into three groups: G5–15: from 5% to 15% body weight (BW) loss (n = 55); G155–25: from 15.1% to 25% BW loss (n = 29); and G > 25: more than 25.1% BW loss (n = 10). Five brands of kibble diets designed for weight loss were analysed for crude protein, amino acids, fat, dietary fibre, and minerals. The food metabolizable energy (ME) was estimated (NRC, 2006). Data were compared inside each group using the paired t test and between groups with analysis of variance and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). The BW loss (weeks in regimen) was: G5–15, 9.8% ± 2.7% (13.5 ± 5.7 weeks); G15–25, 17.5% ± 2.7% (22.6 ± 11.9 weeks); G > 25, 30.0% ± 2.1% (50.4 ± 17.4% weeks; p < 0.01). The mean weekly BW loss rate was similar between groups (0.8% ± 0.3%; p > 0.05) but was higher during the first (0.96.6% ± 0.5%) than in the second (0.64% ± 0.4%) half of the regimen (p < 0.01). At beginning ME intake for BW loss did not differ (251.6 ± 32.2 kJ/kg0.75/day), but it was lower for G > 25 in the second half of the regimen (230.3 ± 44.3; p = 0.02). Considering the observed ME intake of each dog, depending on the commercial product, intake below recommended for maintenance was verified for crude protein in 1%–20% of the dogs, methionine in 4%–38% of dogs, methionine plus cystine in 4%–22% of dogs, tryptophan in 7%–93% of dogs, potassium in 2%–85% of dogs and magnesium in 1% up to 95% of dogs. Although the diets presented elevated nutrient concentrations per MJ, due to the reduced energy allowance, the estimated intake of several nutrients was lower than the recommendations, highlighting the importance of changing the formulation perspective, which must prioritize the actual nutrient intake per kg of BW during the energy deficit.
  • ItemArtigo
    Ovarian contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and Doppler fluxometry in bitches during the postovulatory estrus and corpora lutea formation
    (2022-12-01) Nogueira Aires, Luiz Paulo [UNESP]; Gasser, Beatriz [UNESP]; Silva, Priscila [UNESP]; Del'Aguila-Silva, Priscila [UNESP]; Yamada, Diego Iwao; Carneiro, Rafael Kretzer [UNESP]; Bruna Bressianini Lima, Bruna [UNESP]; Padilha-Nakaghi, Luciana Cristina [UNESP]; Ramirez Uscategui, Ricardo Andrés; Spada, Stefano; Russo, Marco; Rossi Feliciano, Marcus Antônio [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Marilia University (UNIMAR); Universidad CES; University of Naples “Federico II”; Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vascularization features of canine ovaries during the follicular phase and the formation of the corpora lutea by using Doppler ultrasonography and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS). Eight healthy bitches were enrolled in the study and were evaluated at five different timepoints (T1 – T5) of the estrous cycle established by vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentration. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed by a single operator using the ACUSON S2000/SIEMENS machine equipped with a linear multifrequency transducer (9.0 MHz). Color-coded Doppler evaluation of the ovarian parenchyma was performed to investigate the aspects of the signal detection throughout the different timepoints. Pulsed-wave Doppler of the intraovarian arteries was performed to evaluate spectral waveform and doppler velocimetric parameters of Systolic Peak Velocity (SPV cm/s), End Diastolic Velocity (EDV cm/s), Resistivity Index (RI) and Pulsatility Index (PI). CEUS evaluation of the ovaries was performed using a vascular contrast agent (SonoVue®, Bracco, Sao Paulo, Brazil) and the CADENCE™ Contrast Pulse Sequencing (CPS, Siemens) software, in order to perform both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Perfusion parameters of pixel number, peak intensity (PPI in %), time to peak intensity (TTP in s), mean transit time (MTT in s) and area under the curve (AUC in %). Colour-coded Doppler evaluation demonstrated an increase in signal detection as cycle progressed, with blood flow initially detected with few coloured pixels and mainly at the ventral surface of the ovaries. Further on, the number of coloured pixels increased and spreading to the central region, resulting in a circular-like pattern around the corpora hemorrhagica. The spectral waveform was consistent at all timepoints. SPV (cm/s) and EDV (cm/s) presented a numeric trend and a slight statistical difference at all timepoints, whereas no difference was found for RI and PI. CEUS evaluation demonstrated an increase in pixel intensity across all the timepoints. Quantitative CEUS analysis revealed a statistical difference in PPI (%), MTT (s) and AUC (%) at T5. CEUS evaluation of the ovaries was feasible and demonstrated a marked increase in perfusion parameters in the late postovulatory period, demonstrating its applicability in the assessment of canine corpora lutea development.
  • ItemArtigo
    Histone epigenetic modifications and their relationship with cancer: a comparative medicine view
    (Univ Federal Santa Maria, 2023-01-01) Senhorello, Igor Luiz Salardani; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela [UNESP]; Univ Vila Velha UVV; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Epigenetic modifications have become highly important in the study of cancer pathogenesis due to research showing that changes in the expression of DNA-associated proteins can affect gene expression but may be reversible after treatment. The changing histones are being studied on a large scale in medicine while recent studies also show this relationship in veterinary medicine. Histone deacetylation is related to tumor progression and overexpression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is responsible for these changes. The silencing of tumor suppressor genes related to epigenetic changes favors tumor progression; however, using HDAC inhibitors has been shown to effectively reverse these histone changes while having anticancer effects. This research provided an overview of comparative medicine between humans and dogs concerning epigenetic changes while showing the physiological mechanisms and the relationship between cancer and epigenetics, specifically regarding histone acetylation and deacetylation. This overview should contribute to a better understanding of epigenetics and cancer and their relationship with new target-molecular therapies in veterinary medicine and the importance of such studies.
  • ItemArtigo
    Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy in Dogs: an Ex Vivo Comparative Study of Knee's Surrounding Structures Protection Methods
    (Univ Fed Rio Grande Do Sul, 2022-12-09) Costa, Rodrigo Casarin [UNESP]; Dreibi, Rafael Manzini [UNESP]; Andrade, Caroline Ribeiro de [UNESP]; Andrade Moutinho da Conceicao, Maria Eduarda Bastos [UNESP]; Salvitti de Sa Rocha, Thiago Andre [UNESP]; Oliveira, Fabricio Singaretti de [UNESP]; Minto, Bruno Watanabe [UNESP]; Gosuen Goncalves Dias, Luis Gustavo [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Background: Cranial cruciate ligament failure is one of the leading causes of pelvic limb lameness in dogs and one of the most recommended treatments is tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) surgery. However, this procedure may lead to some complications as fractures of the fibula, laceration in varying degrees of the popliteal vasculature and its branches, neuropraxia, neurotmeses, among others. The goals of this study were to compare the effectiveness of 8 methods used during TPLO, to prevent damage to the cranial tibial artery, fibula, tibial and fibular nerve (surgical compresses, specific surgical retractors I and II and an osteotomy technique variation). Materials, Methods & Results: A total of 40 canine cadavers weighing 25.9 +/- 3.7 kg were submitted to TPLO. Animals were previously prepared with 1: 4 barium red latex solution, to provide radiopacity of arteries surrounding the knee (n = 80). TPLO was performed using 8 methods to protect the cranial tibial artery, fibula, and tibial and fibular nerves. Each method was used in one of the knees of 5 animals. The contralateral knee was maintained as a control (without protection). The knees were radiographed in orthogonal projections before and after the osteotomies and then anatomically dissected. The evaluated structures were photographed, and the images sent to four blind evaluators (visual macroscopy) to classify the possible injuries. The highest incidence of injuries was identified when protection methods were used. However, this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). No significant differences regarding efficacy were found between all 8 protection methods. Discussion: In this study, the total incidence of injuries following TPLO was 20% was much higher than that presented in the literature which indicates when considering only intraoperative injuries. The dogs cadavers tissue resistance and stiffened latex may have predisposed the osteotomy injury, as soft tissues with greater flexibility are less susceptible to trauma caused by the oscillatory saw. When compared to others cadaveric studies that also evaluated the efficacy of surgical dressings to protect the cranial tibial artery, during TPLO, we also find a higher incidence of damage. Maybe the limb's position was responsible for this difference, once in the after mentioned researches the limb was positioned suspended to simulate a dorsal decubitus position and we choose the limb position with the lateral face resting on the surface of the operating table, and this may have provided extra pressure from the structures towards the osteotomy saw, increasing the occurrence of those damages. Although the present study did not reveal a significant difference for the use of protection methods, we believe that the dimensions of the compresses used herein may have contributed to a higher incidence of injuries. They probably increased the tissue trauma needed for their allocation and led to a lower positioning accuracy for the isolation of these structures. Maybe for the same reason, the specific type II surgical retractor was the only shield that, observationally, did not increase the occurrence of injuries, once less dissection was required to allocate it. The difference in geometric dimensions between the retractors may justify the superiority of the retractor II, since it allows a more careful and apparently less traumatic allocation. Performing TPLO without adopting these protection methods did not lead to a higher risk of injury to the cranial tibial artery, fibula, and tibial and fibular nerves.
  • ItemArtigo
    Lateral and Medial Musculatures of Pelvic Limbs in Dogs - Normal Ultrasonographic Anatomy
    (Univ Fed Rio Grande Do Sul, 2022-11-26) Carneiro, Rafael Kretzer [UNESP]; Kniphoff da Cruz, Igor Cezar [UNESP]; Lima, Bruna [UNESP]; Goncalves Neto, Jose Aloizio [UNESP]; Gasser, Beatriz [UNESP]; Ramirez Uscategui, Ricardo Andres; Bortoluzzi, Eduarda Mazzardo; Nogueira Aires, Luiz Paulo [UNESP]; Minto, Bruno Watanabe [UNESP]; Rossi Feliciano, Marcus Antonio; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Univ CES; Kansas State Univ KSU; Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    Background: Pelvic limb claudication is a common problem in dogs. However, determining the location of the lesion can be challenging. Diagnostic imaging is essential for identifying and evaluating muscle injuries. Ultrasonographic evaluation is frequently performed to identify muscle injuries. Although some muscle changes have already been described as ultrasonography findings in veterinary studies, little is known about the standardization of these muscle structures, especially in hip muscles. The objective of this study was to describe the normal ultrasound anatomy of the lateral and medial muscles of the pelvic limb and establish an unprecedented protocol for the evaluation of these structures. Materials, Methods & Results: A total of 4 lateral and 4 medial musculatures of the pelvic limb of dogs were evaluated using ultrasound. An initial ex vivo study (1st phase) was performed to delineate anatomical and ultrasonographic assessments. The 2nd experimental phase proceeded with the application of in vivo scanning. The same operator performed all anatomical and ultrasonographic assessments. The gluteus medius, vastus lateralis, tensor fasciae latae, sartorius, pectineus, gracilis, adductor, and rectus femoris muscles were evaluated in longitudinal and transverse planes. Ten paired hips from 5 cadavers consisting of 3 females (60%) and 2 males (40%) were evaluated during the ex vivo phase. The average age and weight of the dogs were 3.6 +/- 0.87 years and 21.9 +/- 5.2 kg, respectively. The in vivo study included 4 females (40%) and 6 males (60%), for a total of 10 healthy animals consisting of 20 hips; the mean weight was 30.11 +/- 7.45 kg and the average age was 4.5 +/- 2.75 years. All muscles maintained the same ultrasound pattern when compared with each other and between different groups in the in vivo study. The longitudinal section presented a hypoechoic structure permeated by thin hyperechoic longitudinal striations. The hypoechoic aspect was maintained, with striae identified as hyperechogenic points in the cross-sectional view. Discussion: B-mode ultrasonographic evaluation with a high-frequency transducer has facilitated the identification of the lateral and medial muscles of the pelvic limbs of medium and large dogs ex vivo and in vivo. This approach is an effective and safe way to access these muscles, and aids in the establishment of an unprecedented protocol for ultrasound evaluation of this region. Understanding the normal ultrasonographic anatomy is essential to identify muscle injuries such as contractures, tumors, ruptures, and stretch, which can lead to loss of muscle echogenicity and echotexture. Furthermore, ultrasound standardization reduces inter-observer error, facilitates technique reproducibility, assists in a more assertive assessment, and directs the patient's most appropriate therapy. In addition, anatomical dissection with the aid of acoustic gel injection into the evaluated musculature is essential to guide the examination because it allows the confirmation of the structures. In this study, the ultrasound scans of 6 fundamental muscles (gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, gracilis, adductor, pectineus, and rectus femoris) for hip mobility and 2 knee muscles (sartorius and vastus lateralis) were standardized. Ex vivo evaluations facilitated the application of in vivo techniques, and no difficulties were found during these evaluations.
  • ItemArtigo
    Ophthalmic parameters in adult Pomeranian dogs
    (2022-01-01) Fachini, F. A. [UNESP]; Kobashigawa, K. K. [UNESP]; Madruga, G. M. [UNESP]; Filézio, M. R. [UNESP]; Cruz, N. R.N. [UNESP]; Moraes, P. C. [UNESP]; Laus, J. L. [UNESP]; Oliveira, F. S. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The objective of this study was to establish ophthalmic parameters in the Pomeranian dog breed. Schirmer tear test (STT), tear breakup time test (TBUTT), Jones test (JT), aesthesiometry, biomicroscopy, tonometry, non-contact specular microscopy (SM), ophthalmoscopy and ultrasonography (US) were carried out 48 eyes of 24 male and female Pomeranian dogs from a breeding kennel. Descriptive statistics was applied for data analysis. Means and standard errors found for STT, TBUT, JT, esthesiometry and tonometry were 24.310±0.448mm/min, 14.570±0.406s., 8.420±1.571min, 3.667±0.157cm and 17.960±0.697mmHg, respectively. For biomicroscopy, 43.75% of the eyes presented caruncle trichiasis, 25% chromodacryorrhea, 25% medial entropion and 10,42% distichiasis. SM showed endothelial cells density of 1958.285±36.760 cells/mm². For hexagonality, endothelial cells area and central corneal thickness were 62.229±2.183%, 519.231±9.853mm², 0.567±0.006mm, respectively. Ophthalmoscopy presented a pattern described in other breeds. Amelanotic fundus was reported in 8.33% of the eyes. The US means and standard errors for axial length of the eyeball, lens thickness, anterior and vitreous chamber depth were 16.859±0.148mm, 6.651±0.081mm, 2.673±0.091mm and 7.485±0.101mm. Mild changes in the lacrimal evaluation parameters were influenced by eyelid changes in STT type I. Increased corneal sensitivity was observed in the breed
  • ItemArtigo
    Applicability of ARFI elastography in detecting elasticity changes of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon with induced injury
    (2022-01-01) Bernardi, Nara Saraiva [UNESP]; da Cruz, Igor Cezar Kniphoff [UNESP]; Maronezi, Marjury Cristina [UNESP]; Santos, Maíra Moreira [UNESP]; Lera, Katiucha Rebeca Jennifer Lopes [UNESP]; Gasser, Beatriz [UNESP]; Aires, Luiz Paulo Nogueira [UNESP]; de Lacerda Neto, José Corrêa [UNESP]; Canola, Paulo Aléscio [UNESP]; Pozzobon, Ricardo; Uscategui, Ricardo Andrés Ramirez; Feliciano, Marcus Antônio Rossi; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidad CES; Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    The objectives of this prospective, experimental study were to describe changes in the stiffness of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) after induced injury, deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT), accessory ligament (AL-DDFT), and suspensory ligament (SL) during 90 days of healing using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography. Eight healthy horses were selected. Preinjury B mode and ARFI evaluations were performed bilaterally in the palmar metacarpal region. Injury was induced only on the left forelimb (G2) by a single injection of collagenase in SDFT, 15 cm distal to the accessory carpal bone. The right forelimb was used as a control (G1). Evaluations were performed at eight timepoints: one before injury (T0) and seven (T1-T7) after injury (3, 15, 30, 40, 60, 75, and 90 days post-induction). Tendinopathies were visualized as hypoechoic areas with loss of parallel tendon fiber pattern. Injured SDFTs presented mainly cool colors (soft) from T1 to T3, and from T4, there was an increase in warm colors (hard), close to the appearance of tendons of G1. In the first four timepoints, there was a decrease in stiffness compared to G1 (P < 0.001). On T1 and T2, a cutoff value <6.21 m/s to determine tendinopathy of the SDFT was established (75.8% sensitivity and 92.03% specificity). Stiffness changes in the DDFT, AL-DDFT, and SL of injured limbs occurred at different timepoints. Tendinopathy significantly altered the stiffness of the injured tendon and the adjacent tissues. ARFI made it possible to detect these changes, helping to monitor the reparation of this injury.
  • ItemArtigo
    Energy expenditure of red-footed tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria) fed kibble diets with high levels of fibre, starch, or fat
    (2022-01-01) Di Santo, Ludmilla G. [UNESP]; Pacheco, Letícia G. [UNESP]; Fernandes, Márcia H. M. R. [UNESP]; Braos, Lucas B. [UNESP]; Sanfilippo, Luiz F.; Scarpim, Lucas B. [UNESP]; Carciofi, Aulus C. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Anollis Consultoria Ambiental
    Knowledge of energy requirements is necessary to optimise the nutritional management of animals. For tortoises, very little is known about their nutrient and energy requirements. Data on substrate oxidation and the implications of starch or fat intake on the energy metabolism are lacking. The present study compared the daily energy expenditures (DEE) of red-footed tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria) that were fed three extruded diets: a control diet high in fibre and two test diets, one with high starch content and another with high fat content. A total of 18 tortoises (5.5 ± 1.18 kg) were used in a completely randomised design, with 6 animals per diet. After 14 months of experimental diet intake and 48 h of preliminary fasting, the animals were kept for 12 h in 70-l respiratory chambers. An open “push mode” system was used to determine the carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption levels for the subsequent calculations of DEE. The data were analysed with ANOVA, and the means were compared by using Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). The body weights, chamber temperatures and food intakes of the tortoises were similar among the treatments (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in oxygen consumption (21.7 ± 3.16 ml · kg−1 · h−1), carbon dioxide production (18.1 ± 1.96 ml · kg−1 · h−1), or DEE (9.7 ± 1.04 kJ · kg−1 d−1) between diets or sex (p > 0.05). The respiratory quotients (0.84 ± 0.11) were also similar among the diets (p > 0.05). The DEE of red footed tortoises did not differ after a long-term starch or fat intake.