Artigos - Engenharia Industrial Madeireira - Itapeva

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  • ItemArtigo
    Chemical and physical behavior of natural and heat rectification wood oeucalyptus clones
    (2023-03-28) Barreiros, Ricardo Marques ; Lisboa, Felipe Dutra ; Gouvea, Cantídio Fernando ; Reis, Alessandra Maria Ferreira ; Godinho, Emmanuel Zullo ; Dias, Kelly Bossardi ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS) ; Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    Eucalyptus is a species of the most cultivated in the national scope, whose wood is widely used in the manufacture of furniture and other derived products. However, it is subjected to variations due to changes in moisture and other factors. To minimize such variations, some treatments were studied in a non-environmentally aggressive manner. This work analyzed the physical and chemical properties of wood of hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urograndis, “in natura” and thermally modified at temperatures of 140, 160, 180, 200 and 220°C, with 8.5 years of age, planted in Buri-SP, Brazil. The physical characterization was performed according to Brito, Garcia and Bortoletto (2006) and Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (1997), and the chemical characterization according to Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (1999). Through statistical analysis of factorial regression with significance of 5%, the clone factor did not cause interference in the analyzed properties; the variation that occurred was due to the temperature used; the hemicellulose was the main chemical property affected by the temperature; the most interesting treatments were those performed up to 180°C, since they did not compromise much the chemical properties of the wood and, consequently, would not affect so much their physical and mechanical properties.
  • ItemCapítulo de livro
    Bamboo Construction: Main Building Techniques and Their Resources, Sustainability, History, Uses, and Classification
    (2023-01-01) De Araujo, Victor Almeida ; Colauto, Letícia Rubio ; Abel, Leticia Gabriele Crespilho ; do Rosário, Fábio Silva ; Vasconcelos, Juliano Souza ; Morales, Elen Aparecida Martines ; Barbosa, Juliana Cortez ; Gava, Maristela ; Christoforo, André Luis ; Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar) ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Like wood, bamboo is utilized in different products for civil construction, either in natural or in engineered form. The easy proliferation in small-sized planted forests, rapid harvest cycles, and low environmental impacts in the planting and processing stages gave significant credentials to this renewable bio-based resource in the last years. In addition, different bamboo species are likely to be applied to structural applications. These facts value this biomaterial as a convenient input to supply the civil construction sector, above all, in more sustainable housing and infrastructure. Formerly, bamboo culms and esterillas were used in popular buildings using rudimentary solutions based on vernacular techniques. From the advancement of bioresource technology and industrialization, structural bamboo products and bamboo-based composites are being developed for modern buildings manufactured from prefabrication techniques. As a structural material in its multiple forms, bamboo can be used alone or together with other materials, which contributes to the diffusion of this commodity worldwide. Thereat, bamboo buildings may overcome their usual applications in Asia, Africa, and part of Latin America to be valued as a sustainable alternative for construction by engineering and architecture professionals from Europe, Oceania, and South and North Americas.
  • ItemArtigo
    Evaluation of the Dry Deposition of Particles Emitted by Biomass Combustion
    (2023-06-01) Costa, Maria Angélica Martins ; Sampaio de Mello, Bruna ; dos Santos Olimpio Dias, Airton ; Donato, Gabriela ; Dussan, Kelly Johana ; Sarti, Arnaldo ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The dry deposition flux of particles smaller than 2.5 µm was investigated considering agricultural and urban regions. The concentrations, size distributions, and chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) were evaluated and related to emission sources. The concentrations of fine PM were associated to the highest number of wildfire outbreaks. The results of the PM samples combined with the analyses of the air mass trajectories evidenced that the transport of this pollutant may have come from regions with industries that use biomass as fuel. The predominant water-soluble ions in coarse and fine particulate were nitrate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfate, and nitrate, respectively. The deposition fluxes of potassium, nitrate, and sulfate ions were higher during the sugarcane harvest than during the off-season.
  • ItemArtigo
    Thermal and Gluing Properties of Phenol-Based Resin with Lignin for Potential Application in Structural Composites
    (2023-01-01) Galdino, Danilo Soares ; Kondo, Marcel Yuzo ; De Araujo, Victor Almeida ; Ferrufino, Gretta Larisa Aurora Arce ; Faustino, Emerson ; Santos, Herisson Ferreira dos ; Christoforo, André Luis ; Luna, Carlos Manuel Romero ; Campos, Cristiane Inácio de ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar) ; Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM)
    Using Kraft lignin, bio-based adhesives have been increasingly studied to replace those petrochemical-based solutions, due to low cost, easy availability and the potential for biodegradability of this biomaterial. In this study, lignin-based phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resins were synthesized using commercial Eucalypt Kraft Lignin (EKL), purified at 95%, as a phenol substitute in different proportions of 10%, 20%, 30% and 50%. The properties of bio-based phenol formaldehyde (BPF) synthesized resin were compared with phenol-formaldehyde resin (PF) used for control sampling. The results indicated that viscosity, gel time and solid contents increased with the addition of pure EKL. The shear strength test of glue line was studied according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and BPF-based results were superior to samples bonded with the PF as a control sample, being suitable for structural purposes. Changes in the curing behavior of different resins were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and sample comparison indicated that the curing of the LPF resin occurred at lower temperatures than the PF. The addition of EKL in PF reduced its thermal stability compared to traditional resin formulation, resulting in a lower decomposition temperature and a smaller amount of carbonaceous residues.
  • ItemArtigo
    Proposal for the conversion of Eucalyptus urograndis into bioethanol via acid hydrolysis, using the concepts of biorefineries
    (2022-12-01) Camargo, Sâmique Kyene De Carvalho Araújo ; Ventorim, Gustavo ; Camargo, Bruno Silva ; Salvador, Rodrigo ; De Carvalho Araújo, Cristiane Karyn ; De Carvalho Araújo, Camilla Kawane Ceciliano ; Henrique Antunes Vieira, Fábio ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; Technical University of Denmark (DTU) ; Universidade Tecnológica Federal Do Paraná (UTFPR) ; São Paulo State College of Technology (FATEC)
    The production of bioethanol from materials of renewable origin is an important matter for a more sustainable economic development, and at the same time it challenges researchers to seek more efficient technologies that can make it viable. Wood is a profitable and advantageous option, with special emphasis on eucalyptus, whose cultivation has high turnover in Brazil, where land is available for this purpose. Therefore, the goal of this research was to optimize the hydrolysis stage using acid instead of enzymes for the conversion of chips of Eucalyptus urograndis into bioethanol, with additional co-production of furfural and commercial lignin, in order to make the process more advantageous. To obtain bioethanol, a pre-treatment adapted from autohydrolysis was performed to remove the hemicelluloses, followed by soda pulping to remove the lignin and, finally, the acid hydrolysis of the β-(1→4) glycosidic bonds between the C1-C4 cellulose carbons releasing β-D-glucose monomers to be fermented into bioethanol. In the acid hydrolysis step, sulfuric acid of concentration 1127 gL-1 was used. After the experimental analyses performed, it could be observed that in acid hydrolysis, treatments using 70 mL and 80 mL of sulfuric acid did not differ statistically in relation to glucose production. However, by increasing the volume of acid to 90 mL, there was an increase in the production of fermentable sugars into bioethanol, 63.7 %, which began decreasing when adding acid above 93 mL, because the excess of acid also caused the degradation of sugars into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF); and in the treatment of 100 mL there was a higher production of HMF. The production of bioethanol proved to be competitive after the fermentation of the sample from the 90 mL treatment with a production of 103.7 L of bioethanol/ton of wood, in addition to being beneficial to the process as a whole with the co-production of furfural, 28.8 kg of furfural ton-1 of wood, and commercial lignin, 428.3 kg of lignin per ton of wood, precursors to various chemicals such as resins, coatings and inks.
  • ItemArtigo
    Physical and Mechanical Properties of Plywood Produced with Thermally Treated Pinus taeda Veneers
    (2022-09-01) Ferreira, Bruno Santos ; Arroyo, Felipe Nascimento ; Kondo, Marcel Yuzo ; Santos, Herisson Ferreira dos ; Barreto, Rogério Lima ; Dias, Alfredo Manuel Pereira Geraldes ; Lahr, Francisco Antônio Rocco ; Christoforo, André Luis ; Campos, Cristiane Inácio de ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar) ; Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM) ; University of Coimbra ; Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    Plywood is a structural composite mainly applied in construction. For this purpose, some sort of preservative treatment is recommended to increase its durability. One option of the available treatments is heat treatment, which promotes the modification of the wood properties. This treatment is carried out on the final product (plywood), because it can reduce strength if applied to the veneers. However, no study has proven such a reduction. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate three different temperatures (160 °C, 180 °C and 200 °C) of the heat treatment on the veneer surface and on the physical properties (specific gravity, moisture content and swelling in thickness) and mechanical properties (MOE and MOR in static bending) of Pinus taeda plywood. A reduction was observed in the roughness of the veneer’s surfaces and the total extractives content changed, with a minimum value reached in the 160 °C treatment. The plywood specific gravity initially increased with the heat treatment and did not change at higher temperatures, moisture content reduced, and thickness swelling was not affected. There was no change in the mechanical properties of the plywood, evidencing that the veneer heat treatment does not prejudice mechanically the final product.
  • ItemArtigo
    Soil micromorphology and CO2 exchange in initial Atta sexdens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) nests
    (2023-01-01) Sousa, Kátia Kaelly Andrade ; Camargo, Roberto da Silva ; Caldato, Nadia ; Farias, Adriano Pimentel ; de Matos, Carlos Alberto Oliveira ; Zanuncio, José Cola ; Sabattini, Julian Alberto ; Forti, Luiz Carlos ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) ; National Council for Scientific and Technical Research
    Ants build underground nests to protect their colonies and to improve conditions for their offspring. The excavation of nests, by ants, modifies the soil structure, facilitating gas exchange and circulation, which needs further studies. Do initial nests modify the initial chamber soil matrix and gas exchange? The objective was to study the soil micromorphology of the wall of the chamber of initial nests of the leaf-cutting ant A. sexdens and how the CO2 diffuses into the soil matrix. The CO2 concentration in initial four-month-old A. sexdens nests was measured for 24 h using a respirometric system with a gas meter and closed nest holes (obliterated). After this period, they were opened and the CO2 concentration measured again. In addition, 15 cm deep holes were drilled into the ground 15 and 60 cm away from the ant nest hole. The CO2 was measured in these orifices and then they were sealed for 24 h and new ones made after this period. The contents of the nest chambers were removed, after the CO2 measures and the soil micromorphology of the walls of the initial chamber analyzed. The CO2 concentration in the nest chamber was greater than that in the soil at 15 and 60 cm distant from it. The CO2 accumulation did not increase with the obliteration of the nest entrance for 24 h. Coarse material, mainly quartz and charcoal fragments, besides fine material of clay, organic matter and iron oxides composed the soil of the wall of initial nests. The soil porosity in the chamber walls of the initial nests was lower than that of the matrix of the adjacent soil and differed between those of the nests. Initial nests of A. sexdens modifies the soil matrix of their walls, allowing to CO2 exchange between its chamber and adjacent soil.
  • ItemArtigo
    Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Conventional and Niobium-Modified MAR-M246 Superalloy at 900 and 1000 °C
    (2023-03-01) de Faria Cunha, Filipe Augusto ; de Andrade Reis, Rodrigo ; Gonçalves, Samantha Pinto ; Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires ; Baldan, Renato ; de Sousa Malafaia, Artur Mariano ; Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS) ; Federal Institute of Education ; Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC) ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Nickel-based superalloys have excellent properties at high temperatures, which makes them appropriate for applications such as turbocharges and aeronautic gas turbines. MAR-M246 is a superalloy developed for these kinds of applications. The objective of this work was to study the total replacement of Ta by Nb in atomic percentage for this superalloy, regarding the oxidation resistance. Although both elements have the same role (form the γ’ precipitates) in nickel-based superalloys, Ta is more expensive than Nb. Thus, this replacement leads to the possibility of a price reduction. This work studied both conventional MAR-M246(Ta) and experimental MAR-M246(Nb) on cyclic oxidation tests at 900 and 1000 °C for up to 180 cycles. The oxide products were characterized by SEM/EDS and XRD analysis. The products of oxidation were mainly TiO2, Al2O3, Cr2O3, NiO, and Ni(Co)Cr2O4. Mass gain variation per unit area was stable for both materials and temperatures. However, spalled areas were detected for tests performed at 1000 °C. The results obtained here suggest that use of Nb instead of Ta can be considered regarding high temperature oxidation for MAR-M246 superalloy.
  • ItemArtigo
    Emission analysis of sugarcane bagasse combustion in a burner pilot
    (2023-05-01) Costa, M. A.M. ; Schiavon, N. C.B. ; Felizardo, M. P. ; Souza, A. J.D. ; Dussán, K. J. ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; IFMG
    Although biomass is from a renewable source, and its biological development captures CO2, burning emits a mixture of various components, such as particulate materials, CO2, CO, NOx, oxides, VOCs, among others, and may contain F, Hg and As. These gases contribute toward anthropogenic air polluting agents and are emitted for energy sources by various industrial sectors, such as sugarcane bagasse burning, which is a waste product of the sugar and alcohol industry. This study aims to quantify gas emissions, mainly CO2, CO, and NOx, from sugarcane bagasse burning under different burner operating conditions and to evaluate the emission and control of these pollutants using a Venturi scrubber. The sugarcane bagasse combustion process occurred in an experimental burner, comprising a rotary feeder, combustion chamber, exhaust gas chamber, Venturi scrubber, cyclone, blowers, and exhaust ducts. The Venturi scrubber, located between the burner and the cyclone, has a rectangular geometry. The gas velocity was evaluated from 3.4 to 11 m/s and the water flow rates from 2.5 L/min to 6.0 L/min. The results indicate that CO concentrations ranged from 34 to 311 ppm, the NOx concentrations from 8 to 80 ppm, while CO2 reached values from 6000 to 26000 ppm. Investigating and quantifying these emissions are important to understand the global carbon balance, given the considerable magnitude of CO2 emissions from these non-fossil fuels.
  • ItemArtigo
    Photovoltaic Solar Energy in Forest Nurseries: A Strategic Decision Based on Real Options Analysis
    (2023-03-01) Rocha, Qüinny Soares ; Munis, Rafaele Almeida ; da Silva, Richardson Barbosa Gomes ; Aguilar, Elí Wilfredo Zavaleta ; Simões, Danilo ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    With the growing demand for investment projects in renewable energy, it is essential for the economic feasibility analysis to consider the inherent uncertainties of these projects and enable more accurate investment decisions. In this way, we analyze whether investment projects in photovoltaic panels to produce electrical energy in a forest nursery are economically viable through the analysis of real options. We consider the energy demand of a forest nursery with an initial investment of USD 90,417 in photovoltaic panels. The managerial flexibilities of deferral, expansion of 30.0% of the energy production capacity, and the project’s abandonment were inserted into the binomial model of the decision tree, built in discrete time. The project’s expanded net present value was 79.2% higher than the traditional net present value, capturing the value of flexibilities for managers. The deferral option was the one that most impacted the expanded net present value. Investment projects in photovoltaic panels to produce electricity in a forest nursery are economically viable when analyzed through real options.
  • ItemTrabalho apresentado em evento
    (2022-01-01) Morais, Carlos Henrique Bittencourt ; de Moura, Fernanda Marques ; Abrahão, Elcio ; Maturana, Marcos Coelho ; Martins, Marcelo Ramos ; de Barros, Leonardo Oliveira ; Orlowski, Rene Thiago Capelari ; Rossi, André Luis Debiaso ; Schleder, Adriana Miralles ; Universidade de São Paulo (USP) ; CENPES - Petrobras ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Cost optimization of asset management is a central issue in the offshore Oil and Gas strategy, and risk-based approaches, such as Risk Based Inspection (RBI), have been more and more employed to assist the segment in the concretization of that goal. The inspection procedure aims mitigating the uncertainty related to the asset degradation state, enabling a better quantification of the actual damage, and, consequently, increases the accuracy of remaining life projections. Since the costs involved in offshore subsea inspections are considerable, inspection plans optimization plays a crucial role in the balance of an asset management program. The present paper discusses the use of genetic algorithms, GA, an optimization technique inspired in the concepts of evolutionary genetics, in the development of inspection plans for subsea equipment. The genes are defined in terms of two variables: the type of inspection to be done and in which period it occurs, considering a finite window of opportunities for inspection occurrences. The optimization process considers a multicriteria objective function, consisting in the dimensions time, cost, and risk. Finally, the application of the proposed methodology is illustrated by means of the elaboration of the inspection plans for a subsea Christmas-tree.
  • ItemResumo
    Influence of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin on post myocardial infarction rat hearts
    (Oxford Univ Press, 2022-10-01) Damatto, F. C. ; Paschoareli, G. L. ; Rosa, C. M. ; Gomes, M. J. ; Pagan, L. U. ; Damatto, R. L. ; Rodrigues, E. A. ; Pontes, T. H. ; Reyes, D. R. A. ; Cezar, M. D. M. ; Oliveira, L. R. S. ; Zornoff, L. A. M. ; Rego, A. B. G. C. ; Okoshi, M. P. ; Okoshi, K. ; Expt Lab Heart Failure ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; Fac Social & Agr Sci Itapeva
  • ItemArtigo
    Costs of Timber Houses in Different Standards and Productions in Brazil
    (Univ Distrital Francisco Jose De Caldas, Centro Invest & Desarrollo Cient, 2023-01-01) Araujo, Victor Almeida de ; Araujo, Francisco Vasconcelos de ; Vasconcelos, Juliano Souza ; Gava, Maristela ; Christoforo, Andre Luis ; Garcia, Jose Nivaldo ; Univ Sao Carlos ; Paula Souza Ctr ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    Context: Timber construction is not among the most popular options due to cultural issues in Brazil. Timber housing standards and costs remain uncertain subjects, and this study seeks to investigate these secular gaps.Method: Basic unitary costs for different finishing standards and production types were measured through face-to-face interviews led by a semi-structured questionnaire. A margin of error was used to validate all re-sults. Entrepreneurs from six Brazilian states were randomly interviewed to obtain a representative sample.Results: The sampling exceeded 50% of the sector population and provided significant outcomes. More than 40% of timber housing techniques showed competitive costs in comparison with masonry. There are feasible alternatives of timber housing for the different scenarios analyzed.Conclusions: Timber houses are economically viable in Brazil, even compared to traditional examples built via masonry. Attractive costs for all social classes symbolize a strong factor in conquering housing markets.
  • ItemArtigo
    (Univ Bio-bio, 2023-01-01) Silva, Maria Fernanda Felippe ; Silva, Joao Vitor Felippe ; Favarim, Higor Rogerio ; Campos, Cristiane Inacio de ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Oriented Strand Board is a structural wood composite with applications that require good physical and mechanical performance. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles is an alternative that has been studied in order to improve the properties of Oriented Strand Board panels. However, there is no information about its effect Oriented Strand Board. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the addition of zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different percentages (0,25 % and 0,50 %) on the physical-mechanical properties of Oriented Strand Board panels produced with phenol-formaldehyde resin and on the heat transfer during hot-pressing. Oriented Strand Board panels were produced and tested according to European Standards. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles improved the dimensional stability of the panel, reducing its thickness swelling, and also increased the screw withdraw strength. The heat transfer during hot-pressing increased the tempera-ture more quickly on boards with nanoparticles addition; on the other hand the final temperature of the control treatment was higher.
  • ItemArtigo
    (Fundacao Getulio Vargas, 2022-11-01) Figueiredo Facin, Ana Lucia ; Franco Paes Leme Barbosa, Ana Paula ; Matsumoto, Cristiane ; Safady Da Gama Cruz, Ana Flavia ; Salerno, Mario Sergio ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    Digital transformation (DT) arises in debates about trends in various industries, mainly in value creation through the innovation of products and services and how they are negotiated. DT poses new challenges to organizations, which this research aims to identify by answering: What is the structure of the literature on DT, and what themes have gained prominence in the last five years? This research conducted a systematic literature review with bibliometric analysis and content analysis. The bibliometric analysis highlighted the following discussions: strategic renewal amid DT; implementation of technologies in Industry 4.0; digitization to enable servitization; DT as an engine of innovation in business models; digital innovation management; and DT to change the consumer experience. The analyses point out avenues for further research and raise important questions for decision-makers in companies that want to reap the benefits of DT.
  • ItemArtigo
    Biochar production from sugarcane biomass using slow pyrolysis: Characterization of the solid fraction
    (2022-09-01) de Almeida, Sâmilla G.C. ; Tarelho, Luís A.C. ; Hauschild, Tailane ; Costa, Maria Angélica Martins ; Dussán, Kelly J. ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; University of Aveiro ; Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
    Understanding how the type of biomass t and parameters of the pyrolysis process influence the characteristics of the biochar obtained, including its calorific value and potential as solid fuel, is important in generating alternative energy sources. In this context, this study assesses biochar production by pyrolysis of parent biomass (B), straw (S), and treated biomass (T, processed with H2SO4 0.5% (w/v) at 140 °C for 15 min). The pyrolysis process of B at 450, 550, and 650 °C, S at 450 °C, and T at 450°C was conducted in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor at a heating rate of 10°C/min. The higher yield of biochar (50.3 wt% db) and bio-oil (26.0 wt% db) for the B was observed at 450°C. Furthermore, the biochar yields for S and T at 450 °C were 36.8 and 31.3 (wt% db), respectively. The biochar produced from B, S, and T at 450 °C shows a higher heating value of 27.9, 25.4, and 27.0 MJ/kg db, respectively. The elemental analysis of the biochar produced from the different feedstocks showed a higher C (64.91–80.93%) and a lower O content (22.58–30.5%) than the parent biomass, indicating that the biochar has good stability and potential as an energy carrier. The approach followed in this work was to contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the valorization of subproducts of the sugarcane industry through pyrolysis to produce biochar that can be used as an energy vector or material for different environmental applications, contributing to the goals of a circular bioeconomy.
  • ItemArtigo
    Eco-efficiency transition applied to municipal solid waste management in the Amazon
    (2022-11-01) Oliveira, Benone Otávio Souza de ; de Medeiros, Gerson Araújo ; Mancini, Sandro Donnini ; Paes, Michel Xocaira ; Gianelli, Bruno Fernando ; Federal University of Amazonas ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; São Paulo School of Management (FGV/EAESP) ; Itapetininga Campus
    In regions of significant social, economic, and environmental vulnerability, such as the Amazon, managing municipal solid waste (MSW) is challenging because of limited infrastructure, climatic and demographic characteristics, and the need to preserve indigenous areas. This study analyzes the eco-efficiency transition of MSW management systems in the Amazon, considering both environmental and economic factors as an instrument to support decision-making. The database used was supported by a gravimetric evaluation of MSW in Humaitá, Amazonas State, Brazil, together with consideration of environmental, social, economic, and logistical aspects. We performed a life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis, integrated with economic performance, quantified the environmental impacts and evaluated the financial viability of the base scenario (Sbase) (100% of the waste sent to landfills) and four other scenarios with increasing levels of waste separation (metals, Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper, and cardboard), with subsequent shipment along the Madeira River to the recycling market in the city of Manaus, in addition to composting organic waste. The transition from Sbase to a scenario of 100% composting of organic waste generated in the urban area, together with 100% separation of PET and metals generated in urban, rural, and indigenous areas, led to the best eco-efficiency transition, shown by a reduction of 152.70 Mpt per US$ invested. The results demonstrate the potential of the eco-efficiency transition approach to assist decision-making in MSW management in the Amazon environment. The analysis performed enables the evaluation of the effects of implementing different scenarios in progressive stages, aiming to achieve continuous improvement in similar sectors of society.
  • ItemArtigo
    Mechanical Chiseling and the Cover Crop Effect on the Common Bean Yield in the Brazilian Cerrado
    (2022-05-01) Do Nascimento, Vagner ; Arf, Orivaldo ; Alves, Marlene Cristina ; de Souza, Epitácio José ; da Silva, Paulo Ricardo Teodoro ; Kaneko, Flávio Hiroshi ; Jalal, Arshad ; Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo da Silva ; Sabundjian, Michelle Traete ; Ferrari, Samuel ; Buzo, Fernando de Souza ; Teixeira Filho, Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; Faculty Unibras of Goiás ; Chapadão Foundation ; Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM) ; Faculty of Social and Agrarian Sciences of Itapeva
    Core Ideas: (1) Superficial soil compaction in a no-tillage system. (2) Cultivation of cover crops in succession with annual crops. (3) Soil decompression with cultivation of the predecessor soil cover. (4) Unpacking soil with mechanical chiseling. (5) Biological chiseling with the cover crop effect on the common bean yield. Mechanical soil intervention with a chisel in cover crops (CC) is a promis-ing alternative strategy to minimize superficial compaction of soil in a no-tillage system (NTS) of the Brazilian Cerrado. Thus, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of mechanical chiseling associated with successor and predecessor cover crops on agronomic components and the grain yield of the common bean in NTS for two consecutive years. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks in a 5 × 2 factorial scheme with four replications. The treatments consisted of five cover crops (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria juncea, Urochloa ruziziensis and Pennisetum glaucum and fallow), associated or not with soil mechanical chiseling. The results indicated that cultivation of C. juncea and U. ruziziensis as cover crops increased the initial and the final plant population and the number of pods plant−1 of the common bean. The cultivation of P. glaucum as a predecessor crop with chiseling was observed with greater shoot dry matter and a greater number of grains pod−1 and plant−1 of the common bean while C. cajan and C. juncea have increased leaf N content in the common bean. The predecessor crops of C. juncea and P. glaucum with chiseling increased the grain yield of the “winter” common bean in succession. Therefore, cultivation of C. juncea and P. glaucum as predecessor crops along with chiseling are considered a sustainable strategy for improving the growth and the yield of successive crops in a no-tillage system of the Brazilian Cerrado.
  • ItemResenha
    Social evaluation of municipal solid waste management systems from a life cycle perspective: a systematic literature review
    (2022-05-01) Costa, Alline Marchesin ; Mancini, Sandro Donnini ; Paes, Michel Xocaira ; Ugaya, Cássia Maria Lie ; de Medeiros, Gerson Araujo ; de Souza, Ricardo Gabbay ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV EAESP) ; Federal University of Technology of Paraná
    Purpose: The social aspects of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems are underpinning their sustainability and effectiveness. The assessment of these systems from a life cycle perspective is widespread throughout environmental life cycle assessment (LCA), but few studies have used social life cycle assessment (S-LCA). The present study is an innovative review with the objective to analyse and describe the current level of development of S-LCA applications in MSWM, and to identify the main methodological challenges and best practices, aiming at recommending approaches to harmonise future S-LCA applications in MSWM. Materials and methods: A systematic review of the literature found 36 relevant scientific articles. These were submitted to bibliometric and content analysis, which includes an analysis of how methodological aspects of the four phases of S-LCA were applied in comparison with best practice and existing guidelines. Results and discussion: There was a predominance of case studies in developing countries (59%) and evaluation of the stages of collection/transportation, pre-processing (sorting) and landfilling (55%). There were more studies focusing on stakeholders, “workers” and “local communities” and in the impact subcategories “employment”, “working hours”, “health and safety/working conditions”, “community involvement/participation” and “health and safety/living conditions of community”. There was great variability in the application of the method (47% of the studies included methodological developments). However, the 39% based on UNEP guidelines were closer to a methodological consensus. Conclusion: In general, studies need more detail and clarity in describing the methodological decisions used. Improvements are needed for issues that limit the S-LCA method, including the difficulties of covering the entire life cycle, relating impacts to the functional unit, standardizing impact assessment methods, addressing allocation and data quality issues and interpretation of results and their limitations. Improvements can be achieved by using participatory methods in the selection of categories, subcategories and impact indicators, as well as by clarifying the definition of a product system and detailing “cut-off criteria” of processes/organizations and the impact of these decisions on results.
  • ItemResenha
    Production and Evaluation of Particleboards Made of Coconut Fibers, Pine, and Eucalyptus using Bicomponent Polyurethane-Castor Oil Resin
    (2022-01-01) Bispo, Rodrigo Andraus ; Trevisan, Mariana Ferreira ; da Silva, Sérgio Augusto Mello ; Aquino, Vinícius Borges de Moura ; Saraiva, Raísse Layane de Paula ; Arroyo, Felipe Nascimento ; Molina, Julio Cesar ; Chahud, Eduardo ; Branco, Luiz Antonio Melgaço Nunes ; Panzera, Túlio Hallak ; Lahr, Francisco Antonio Rocco ; Christoforo, André Luis ; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) ; Federal University of Southern and Southeastern Pará ; Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar) ; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) ; Federal University of São João del-Rei ; Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    This research examined the influence of the compositions between coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera) and wood particles (Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus saligna) on physico-mechanical properties of homogeneous particleboards. The exploratory study was carried out under Tukey's contrast test of means, at 5% significance level, with the following compositions: 100% coconut fiber (F100 P0 E0); 50% coconut fiber, 25% pine particles, and 25% eucalyptus particles (F50 P25 E25); and 50% of pine particles and 50% of eucalyptus particles (F0 P50 E50), with particle moisture content between 0% to 2% and 10%, in mass, of polyurethane-castor oil (PU-Castor) resin. Three panels were produced for each composition. The physico-mechanical properties such as density, moisture content, swelling in thickness after 24 h of immersion in water, perpendicular tensile strength, static bending strength, and modulus of elasticity were evaluated using standard methods. The results obtained indicated the potential for using coconut fiber for the production of homogeneous particleboards in view of the minimum criteria required by the normative documents, with emphasis on the physical property of swelling after 24 hours, which obtained a statistically equivalent average relative to the treatment that contained only wood particles.