ItemArtigoInteractive effect of silicon application and Azospirillum brasilense inoculation on wheat nutrient uptake and accumulation combined with N application rates(2023-01-01) Galindo, Fernando Shintate [UNESP]; Pagliari, Paulo Humberto; Buzetti, Salatiér [UNESP]; Rodrigues, Willian Lima [UNESP]; Fernandes, Guilherme Carlos [UNESP]; Biagini, Antônio Leonardo Campos [UNESP]; Marega, Evelyn Maria Rocha [UNESP]; Jalal, Arshad [UNESP]; Teixeira Filho, Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Southwest Research and Outreach CenterThis study was developed to investigate the interactive effect of silicon (Si) application and the inoculation of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) Azospirillum brasilense on wheat nutrient uptake and accumulation on biomass and grains when combined with nitrogen (N) application rates. The study was set up in a Rhodic Hapludox under no-till system, located in Selvíria, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (tropical Savannah region). Treatments were tested in a randomized complete block design with four replicates, arranged in a full factorial design 2 × 2 × 5 and included: i) two soil amendment sources (Ca and Mg silicate as Si source and dolomitic limestone); ii) two seed inoculation (with and without A. brasilense) and iii) five N application rates applied as side-dress (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha−1). Increasing N application rates positively influenced wheat nutrition with increased nutrient and Si uptake in shoot. Calcium and Mg silicate positively influenced wheat nutrition with greater shoot Si and grain N, P, K, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Si uptake. In addition, Si was the third and sixth element most absorbed in wheat shoot and grain respectively. Inoculation with A. brasilense was found to increase nutrient uptake with greater shoot K and S and grain N, P, K, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Si uptake. Azospirillum brasilense inoculation provided greater N uptake, with an increase of 5.8 and 8.9% on shoot and grain uptake. ItemArtigoAerobiology of the Wheat Blast Pathogen: Inoculum Monitoring and Detection of Fungicide Resistance Alleles(2023-05-01) Vicentini, Samara Nunes Campos [UNESP]; Hawkins, Nichola J.; King, Kevin M.; Moreira, Silvino Intra [UNESP]; de Paiva Custódio, Adriano Augusto; Leite Júnior, Rui Pereira; Portalanza, Diego; Garcés-Fiallos, Felipe Rafael; Krug, Loane Dantas [UNESP]; West, Jonathan S.; Fraaije, Bart A.; De Jesus Júnior, Waldir Cintra; Ceresini, Paulo Cezar [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); NIAB; Rothamsted Research; IDR–Paraná/IAPAR; Universidad Agraria del Ecuador (UAE); Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS); Technical University of Manabí; Wageningen University & Research; Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar)Wheat blast, caused by the ascomycetous fungus Pyricularia oryzae Triticum lineage (PoTl), is mainly controlled by fungicide use, but resistance to the main fungicide groups—sterol demethylase (DMI), quinone outside (QoI), and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHI)—has been reported in Brazil. In order to rationalize fungicide inputs (e.g., choice, timing, dose-rate, spray number, and mixing/alternation) for managing wheat blast, we describe a new monitoring tool, enabling the quantitative measurement of pathogen’s inoculum levels and detection of fungicide resistance alleles. Wheat blast airborne spores (aerosol populations) were monitored at Londrina in Paraná State, a major wheat cropping region in Brazil, using an automated high-volume cyclone coupled with a lab-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. The objectives of our study were as follows: (1) to monitor the amount of PoTl airborne conidia during 2019–2021 based on DNA detection, (2) to reveal the prevalence of QoI resistant (QoI-R) cytochrome b alleles in aerosol populations of wheat blast, and (3) to determine the impact of weather on the dynamics of wheat blast aerosol populations and spread of QoI resistant alleles. PoTl inoculum was consistently detected in aerosols during the wheat cropping seasons from 2019 to 2021, but amounts varied significantly between seasons, with highest amounts detected in 2019. High peaks of PoTl DNA were also continuously detected during the off-season in 2020 and 2021. The prevalence of QoI resistant (QoI-R) cytochrome b G143A alleles in aerosol populations was also determined for a subset of 10 PoTl positive DNA samples with frequencies varying between 10 and 91% using a combination of PCR-amplification and SNP detection pyrosequencing. Statistically significant but low correlations were found between the levels of pathogen and the weather variables. In conclusion, for wheat blast, this system provided prior detection of airborne spore levels of the pathogen and of the prevalence of fungicide resistance alleles. ItemArtigoPyricularia pennisetigena and Pyricularia urashimae can also cause wheat head blast(2023-01-01) Dorigan, Adriano Francis; da Silva Costa Guimarães, Sarah; Vicentini, Samara Nunes Campos [UNESP]; de Souza Moreira, Suellen [UNESP]; Negrisoli, Matheus Mereb [UNESP]; Pereira, Renata Cristina Martins; de Reges, Juliana Teodora Assis [UNESP]; Castroagudín, Vanina Lilián [UNESP]; Ceresini, Paulo Cezar [UNESP]; Alves, Eduardo; Federal University of Lavras; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Agriculture Research Service (USDA-ARS)Pyricularia oryzae pathotype Triticum (PoT) causes wheat blast and is associated with other poaceous hosts. In addition, there are four pathogens of the genus Pyricularia found in or near wheat fields, P. oryzae patotype Lolium (PoL), P. grisea (Pg), P. pennisetigena (Pp), and P. urashimae (Pu). The pathogenicity and virulence levels of Pp and Pu on wheat heads are still unknown. The highest yield losses happen when blast pathogens infect wheat heads. In this study, 25 isolates of Pyricularia spp. were recovered from poaceous hosts invasive of commercial wheat fields previously treated with fungicides. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses (ACT-RPB1-CAL) was used for species delimitation. Nine isolates were identified as PoT, seven as Pp, three as Pg, three as PoL, and three as Pu. Isolates' ability to cause blast disease on the wheat head cv. Anahuac 75 was also evaluated. Wheat heads artificially inoculated with PoT, Pu and Pp showed higher severity values (8.84 to 17.60% of injured area) and differed significantly from Pg, which did not cause lesions on heads. Lesions caused by isolates of Pp and Pu were indistinguishable from those caused by PoT in the inoculation tests. We are reporting for the first time that Pp and Pu cause blast lesions on the head of adult wheat plants that are indistinguishable from those caused by PoT. Our findings show that multiple Pyricularia species can cause blast disease on heads of wheat adult plants under greenhouse conditions with indistinguishable symptoms. ItemArtigoInoculation with Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria and Nitrogen Doses Improves Wheat Productivity and Nitrogen Use Efficiency(2023-04-01) Gaspareto, Rafaela Neris [UNESP]; Jalal, Arshad [UNESP]; Ito, William Cesar Nishimoto [UNESP]; Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo da Silva [UNESP]; Garcia, Cássia Maria de Paula [UNESP]; Boleta, Eduardo Henrique Marcandalli; Rosa, Poliana Aparecida Leonel [UNESP]; Galindo, Fernando Shintate [UNESP]; Buzetti, Salatiér [UNESP]; Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Filho, Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP); University of CopenhagenWheat is one of the staple foods of the global population due to its adaptability to a wide range of environments. Nitrogen is one of the crucial limiting factors in wheat production and is considered a challenge to food security. Therefore, sustainable agricultural technologies such as seed inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPBs) can be adopted to promote biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) for higher crop productivity. In this context, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilization and seed inoculations with Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus subtilis and A. brasilense + B. subtilis on agronomic and yield attributes, grain yield, grain N accumulation, N use efficiency and applied N recovery in Brazilian Cerrado, which consists of gramineous woody savanna. The experiment was carried out in two cropping seasons in Rhodic Haplustox soil under a no-tillage system. The experiment was designed in a randomized complete block in a 4 × 5 factorial scheme, with four replications. The treatments consisted of four seed inoculations (control—without inoculation, inoculation with A. brasilense, B. subtilis and A. brasilense + B. subtilis) under five N doses (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha−1, applied from urea) at the wheat tillering stage. Seed co-inoculation with A. brasilense + B. subtilis increased grain N accumulation, number of spikes m−1, grains spike−1 and grain yield of wheat in an irrigated no-tillage system of tropical savannah, regardless of the applied N doses. Nitrogen fertilization at a dose of 80 kg ha−1 significantly increased grain N accumulation and number of grains spikes−1 and nitrogen use efficiency. Recovery of applied N was increased with inoculation of B. subtilis and co-inoculation of A. brasilense + B. subtilis at increasing N doses. Therefore, N fertilization can be reduced by the inclusion of co-inoculation with A. brasilense + B. subtilis in the cultivation of winter wheat under a no-tillage system of Brazilian Cerrado. ItemArtigoLosses on maize harvesting according to the water content of the grains at harvest(2019-01-01) Galindo, Fernando Shintate [UNESP]; Zocoler, João Luis [UNESP]; Teixeira Filho, Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto [UNESP]; Buzetti, Salatiér [UNESP]; Alves, Cleiton José [UNESP]; Santini, José Mateus Kondo [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The use of methodologies for easy application and quick results are important in determining the water content in the grains to maize producers could decide the right time to perform the harvest with reduced losses in maize grain yield with natural drying at field conditions. The objective of this work was to study the ideal water content at grains at harvest of maize crop, yield and production components as well as losses from natural drying in the field at different water contents at grains harvest. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with 4 repetitions and the treatments consisted in the harvest of the following average levels of water contents of grains on a wet basis: 28.9 (point of full physiological maturity), 23.5, 21.9, 18.9, 16.1 and 13.8%. All variables evaluated were influenced by moisture in grain harvest, having presented increasing linear regression for the number of ears per hectare, final population of plants per hectare and grain potential productivity. The quadratic regression was the best for grain productivity, with the maximum point of productivity of 10,220 kg ha-1 achieved at 23.3% of water content in grain harvest. ItemArtigoAn Accurate, Affordable, and Precise Resazurin-Based Digital Imaging Colorimetric Assay for the Assessment of Fungicide Sensitivity Status of Fungal Populations(2023-02-01) Silva, Tatiane Carla [UNESP]; Moreira, Silvino Intra [UNESP]; Assis, Fabio Gomes [UNESP]; Vicentini, Samara Nunes Campos [UNESP]; Silva, Abimael Gomes [UNESP]; Oliveira, Tamiris Yoshie Kitayama [UNESP]; Christiano, Félix Sebastião [UNESP]; Custódio, Adriano Augusto Paiva; Leite, Rui Pereira; Gasparoto, Maria Cândida Godoy [UNESP]; de Jesus, Waldir Cintra; Ceresini, Paulo Cezar [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA); IDR—Paraná/IAPAR; Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar)This study aimed at the development and validation of an accurate, more affordable, and precise digital imaging resazurin-based fungicide sensitivity colorimetric assay (COL-assay) for fungal plant pathogens from the genera Mycosphaerella and Pyricularia. This proposed digital imaging assay was based on colorimetric estimates of resazurin reduction, which was used as a metabolic indicator of fungal respiration activity on microplate cultures. As fungal model systems, we used the yellow and black Sigatoka pathogens [Mycosphaerella musicola (Mm) and M. fijiensis (Mf), respectively] and the wheat blast pathogen, Pyricularia oryzae Triticum lineage (PoTl), which were previously characterized for QoI, DMI, and SDHI fungicide sensitivity. We then compared the classical spectrophotometry detection assay (SPEC-assay) with the proposed COL-assay based on the analyses of digital images of the microplates’ cultures captured with mobile phone cameras on a handmade trans-illuminator built for poorly equipped labs. Qualitatively, in terms of accuracy, there was full correspondence between the SPEC-assay and the COL-assay according to the fungal EC50 or the relative growth classes on QoI, SDHI, and DMI fungicides for both Mycosphaerella and Pyricularia pathogens. We also observed a strong to very strong correlation coefficient between the COL-assay and the SPEC-assay fungicide sensitivity values for the QoI azoxystrobin, the SDHI fluxapyroxad, and the DMI tebuconazole. Our conclusion was that the COL-assay had a similar accuracy as the SPEC-assay (i.e., resulted in similar fungicide-sensitivity categories for both resistant or sensitive fungal isolates) and high precision. By openly sharing here the COL-assay’s full methodology, and the blueprints of the handmade trans-illuminator, we foresee its adoption by poorly equipped labs throughout the country as an affordable venue for monitoring the fungicide resistance status of populations of important fungal plant pathogens such as M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and P. oryzae Triticum and Oryza lineages. ItemArtigoA new species and taxonomical and geographical notes on Neotropical Cerambycidae (Coleoptera)(2023-01-23) Santos-Silva, Antonio; Botero, Juan Pablo; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector [UNESP]; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Grupo de Sistemática Molecular; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Eburodacrys pilicornis Fisher, 1944 is redescribed based on a female from Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul), and new state record for Venezuela and new department record for Colombia are provided. Notes and new state records in Brazil for Tilloglomus spectabile Martins, 1975 are provided. The pronotal shape of Piezocera flavipennis (Zajciw, 1970) is com-mented on. Piezocera serraticollis Linell, 1897 is synonymized with P. monochroa Bates, 1885 and an updated key to species of Piezocera Audinet-Serville, 1834 is provided. Lepturges (Lepturges) luanae sp. nov. is described from Brazil (Goiás). New geographical records are provided for an additional 17 species belonging to three subfamilies (Cerambycinae, Lamiinae and Lepturinae): Gnomidolon cruciferum (Gounelle, 1909); Microibidion bimaculatum Mehl, Galileo, Martins & Santos-Silva, 2015; Lepturges (Lepturges) centralis Monné, 1978; Lepturges (Lepturges) mattogrossis Gilmour, 1962; Leptostylus pernicio-sus Monné & Hoffmann, 1981; Urgleptes villiersi Gilmour, 1962; Oreodera bituberculata Bates, 1861; Rosalba smaragdina (Breuning, 1940); Colobothea rubroornata Zajciw, 1962; Aerenea subimpetiginosa Breuning, 1948; Cicuiara nitidula (Bates, 1866); Desmiphora (Desmiphora) crocata Melzer, 1935; Estola acricula Bates, 1866; Gisostola bahiensis Martins & Galileo, 1988; Hypsioma chapadensis Dillon & Dillon, 1945; Lypsimena fuscata Haldeman, 1847; and Strangalia flavocincta (Thomson, 1861). ItemArtigoLong-Term Integrated Crop–Livestock–Forestry Systems Recover the Structural Quality of Ultisol Soil(2022-12-01) Matos, Aline Marchetti Silva [UNESP]; Bonini, Carolina dos Santos Batista [UNESP]; Moreira, Bruno Rafael de Almeida [UNESP]; Andreotti, Marcelo [UNESP]; Heinrichs, Reges [UNESP]; Silva, Diogo Tiago da; Souza, José Augusto Liberato de [UNESP]; Santos, Melissa Alexandre [UNESP]; Andrighetto, Cristiana [UNESP]; Pavan, Gustavo Mateus; Barretto, Vitor Corrêa de Mattos [UNESP]; Neto, Alfredo Bonini [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Andradina Educational Foundation; Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios (APTA)Integrated Crop–Livestock–Forestry Systems (ICLFS) offer stakeholders sustainable options to produce goods and services. Those additionally manifest as enablers of environmental conservation of soil functioning. We, therefore, analyzed the quality of Ultisol for physical and chemical properties under restorative or regenerative models of long-term (nine years) ICLFS. The arrangements comprised integrated Crop–Livestock; integrated Crop-Livestock-Forestry, integrated Crop–Livestock–Forestry with a single or triplicate rows of Eucalyptus; and Eucalyptus plantation, natural vegetation, and bare soil with resurgence of grasses (reference). We collected samples of soil at 0.05, 0.05–0.1, and 0.1–0.2 m depths throughout the areas to quantify standard properties, including water infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, degree of flocculation, mechanical resistance to penetration, stability of aggregates, physical fractioning of organic matter, and fertility. We applied principal component analysis to analytical data to calculate accurate discriminant variables to distinguish systems by structural quality. We obtained evidence for the crop–livestock framework improving physical and chemical properties; hence, this intervention outperformed others in developing environmental restoration. Additionally, as the reference consisted of comparable properties to those in integrative systems and native vegetation, it supported the ability of the soil to gradually recover itself over time. Therefore, our study provides knowledge to advance the field’s prominence in implementing ICLFS for the environmental reclamation of the condition or process degrading the soil and its functions for sustainable agricultural production. ItemArtigoAzospirillum brasilense and Zinc Rates Effect on Fungal Root Colonization and Yield of Wheat-Maize in Tropical Savannah Conditions(2022-11-01) Silva, Philippe Solano Toledo [UNESP]; Cassiolato, Ana Maria Rodrigues [UNESP]; Galindo, Fernando Shintate; Jalal, Arshad [UNESP]; Nogueira, Thiago Assis Rodrigues [UNESP]; Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo da Silva [UNESP]; Filho, Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)A successful microbial inoculant can increase root colonization and establish a positive interaction with native microorganisms to promote growth and productivity of cereal crops. Zinc (Zn) is an intensively reported deficient nutrient for maize and wheat production in Brazilian Cerrado. It can be sustainably managed by inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria and their symbiotic association with other microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Azospirillum brasilense inoculation and residual Zn rates on root colonization and grain yield of maize and wheat in succession under the tropical conditions of Brazil. These experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with four replications and arranged in a 5 × 2 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of five Zn rates (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg ha−1) applied from zinc sulfate in maize and residual on wheat and without and with seed inoculation of A. brasilense. The results indicated that root colonization by AMF and DSE in maize–wheat cropping system were significantly increased with interaction of Zn rates and inoculation treatments. Inoculation with A. brasilense at residual Zn rates of 4 kg ha−1 increased root colonization by AMF under maize cultivation. Similarly, inoculation with A. brasilense at residual Zn rates of 2 and 4 kg ha−1 reduced root colonization by DSE under wheat in succession. The leaf chlorophyll index and leaf Zn concentration were increased with inoculation of the A. brasilense and residual Zn rates. The inoculation did not influence AMF spore production and CO2-C in both crops. The grain yield and yield components of maize–wheat were increased with the inoculation of A. brasilense under residual Zn rates of 3 to 4 kg ha−1 in tropical savannah conditions. Inoculation with A. brasilense under residual Zn rates up to 4 kg ha−1 promoted root colonization by AMF and DSE in the maize cropping season. While the inoculation with A. brasilense under 2 and 4 kg ha−1 residual Zn rates reduced root colonization by AMF and DSE in the wheat cropping season. Therefore, inoculation with A. brasilense in combination with Zn fertilization could consider a sustainable approach to increase the yield and performance of the maize–wheat cropping system in the tropical savannah conditions of Brazil. ItemArtigoMicroorganisms and composted sewage sludge in the initial development of baru seedlings in pots(2022-01-01) Silva, Philippe Solano Toledo [UNESP]; Prates, Adrielle Rodrigues [UNESP]; Fernandes, Dirceu Maximino [UNESP]; Cassiolato, Ana Maria Rodrigues [UNESP]; Maltoni, Katia Luciene [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The Brazilian Cerrado has a great diversity of plants and acidic soils with reduced availability of some nutrients, such as phosphorus (P). Addition of organic residues and microorganisms could help to establish plants in this environment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the initial development of baru (Dipteryx alata) seedlings, through the availability of nutrients (such as P) by fertilization with composted sewage sludge (SLUDGE) with sugarcane bagasse (1:1) and inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus clarum. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse, with an experimental design in randomized blocks, in a 2 × 4 factorial scheme, being: SLUDGE (with and without) and inoculation (1 = Control; 2 = B. subtilis, 3 = Gl. clarum and 4 = B. subtilis + Gl. clarum), with 5 replications and one seedling per pot. After 150 days of transplanting the seedlings, the following parameters were evaluated: fresh and dry biomass of the aerial part; stem diameter; plant height; number of leaves; seedling quality index; fresh and dry biomass, surface area, volume, total length and mean diameter of roots; root colonization (COL) and number of AMF spores; COL by melanized septate endophytes (DSE) and carbon from CO2 (C-CO2) released. The baruzeiro showed to be an undemanding species in terms of fertilization, but responsive to inoculation, showing increments in fresh biomass, surface area, volume and total length of roots. The inoculation with Gl. clarum increased the number of spores and the rate of C-CO2 released into the soil, while Gl. clarum and B. subtilis increased COL by AMF and DSE. ItemArtigoNitrogen Fertilization and Glyphosate as a Growth Regulator: Effects on the Nutritional Efficiency and Nutrient Balance in Emerald Grass(2022-10-01) Dinalli, Raíssa Pereira [UNESP]; Buzetti, Salatiér [UNESP]; Gazola, Rodolfo de Niro [UNESP]; de Castilho, Regina Maria Monteiro [UNESP]; Jalal, Arshad [UNESP]; Galindo, Fernando Shintate [UNESP]; Teixeira Filho, Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Nitrogen (N) is one of the promising nutrients for lawn growth and is required for the lawn’s proper growth and development, but it also increases mowing frequency. Glyphosate herbicide application in sub-doses, as a growth regulator, can reduce the maintenance costs without any adverse reduction in the density and nutritional status of grasses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of nitrogen and glyphosate doses on the growth, aesthetic quality and nutritional status of emerald grass (Zoysia japonica Steud.). The experiment was conducted at the Research and Extension Education Farm of São Paulo State University (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil, in an Ultisol. The experiment was designed as a randomized block with 12 treatments arranged in a 3 × 4 factorial scheme with 4 replications, comprised of a control (without N), 15 and 30 g N m−2 of urea, applied in five splits annually, and glyphosate doses (0, 200, 400 and 600 g ha−1 of the active ingredient, a.i.). The split N fertilization at the rate of 15 g m−2 and glyphosate at the dose of 400 g ha−1 maintained nutritional status of emerald grass. Nitrogen at the rate 15 g N m−2 (in five splits per year) was observed to produce lower growth traits, an adequate aesthetic quality and longer stability of the nutrients in emerald grasses through lower exportation, with removal of “clipping” after mowing. In addition, glyphosate, at the dose of 400 g a.i. ha−1, was efficient in reducing the leaf area, plant height, shoot dry matter and total dry matter by 18.3, 14.7, 6.8 and 8.1%, respectively, as compared to the control. However, this dose did not impair the coloration and resulted in a lower exportation of nutrients by reducing the need to replenish by fertilization. Therefore, fertilization with 15 g N m−2, associated with application of 400 g a.i. ha−1 of glyphosate, is recommended for emerald grass in the tropical savannah of Brazil. ItemArtigoPotential of Pseudomonas and Trichoderma from the Brazilian Amazon as Biocontrol Agents against the Wheat Blast Disease(2022-09-01) Pereira, Maikon Richer de Azambuja [UNESP]; Moreira, Silvino Intra [UNESP]; Silva, Abimael Gomes da [UNESP]; Nunes, Tiago Calves [UNESP]; Vicentini, Samara Nunes Campos [UNESP]; Silva, Davi Prata da [UNESP]; Silveira, Patrícia Ricardino da; Oliveira, Tamiris Yoshie Kiyama de [UNESP]; Silva, Tatiane Carla [UNESP]; Botelho, Deila Magna dos Santos; Resende, Mario Lúcio Vilela; Ceresini, Paulo Cezar [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); IFMT; Federal University of LavrasBlast is one of the most significant wheat diseases, causing high yield losses in susceptible varieties under favorable conditions in Latin America, Southeastern Asia and Eastern Africa. The disease is caused by the ascomycetous fungal pathogen Pyricularia oryzae Triticum lineage (PoTl). Chemical control with fungicides has been used as a management strategy; however, the effectiveness of the major classes of high-risk site-specific systemic fungicides has been reduced due to the widespread prevalence of resistance, especially in Brazil. Biological control is seen as a highly important and sustainable strategy to minimize the impact of yield losses associated with wheat blast in areas where fungicides are ineffective. In our study, we specifically aimed to determine the biological control potential of the three isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas and three of Trichoderma as the antagonists of PoTl, both in in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. Additionally, we aimed to describe the ultrastructural interactions among the biocontrol agents and the pathogen in vitro by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fluorescent P. wayambapalatensis ‘Amana’ or Pseudomonas sp. nov. ‘Yara’, both from the P. putida group, and Trichoderma koningiopsis ‘Cachara’ significantly reduced PoTl in vitro mycelial growth and the blast disease severity on wheat plants. The SEM analyses revealed ultrastructural antagonistic mechanisms: biofilm formation, direct antagonism and mycoparasitism. Further research on the topic should include the development of stable formulations of the Pseudomonas- and Trichoderma-based biocontrol agents selected in our study for managing the wheat blast disease and the field tests of the biofungicide formulations obtained thereafter. ItemArtigoEfflux Pumps and Multidrug-Resistance in Pyricularia oryzae Triticum Lineage(2022-09-01) Vicentini, Samara Nunes Campos [UNESP]; Moreira, Silvino Intra [UNESP]; da Silva, Abimael Gomes [UNESP]; de Oliveira, Tamiris Yoshie Kiyama [UNESP]; Silva, Tatiane Carla [UNESP]; Assis Junior, Fabio Gomes [UNESP]; Krug, Loane Dantas [UNESP]; de Paiva Custódio, Adriano Augusto; Leite Júnior, Rui Pereira; Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; Fraaije, Bart; Ceresini, Paulo Cezar [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); IDR—Paraná/IAPAR; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS); NIABWidespread resistance to QoIs, DMI and SDHIs fungicides has been reported for Brazilian populations of the wheat blast pathogen Pyricularia oryzae Triticum lineage (PoTl). A pre-existing resistance mechanism not associated with target site mutations has been indicated for resistance to DMIs and SDHIs, with strong indication that PoTl has multidrugresistance (MDR). Therefore, the main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that resistance to DMI and SDHI fungicides detected in PoTl was due to efflux pump mediated MDR mechanism(s) by characterizing the sensitivity to antifungal efflux pump substrates. Four antifungal substrates were tested: tolnaftate (TOL), cycloheximide (CHX), rhodamine 6G (RH6G) and triphenyltin chloride (TPCL). TPCL and RH6G were considered the most relevant indicators for enhanced MDR activity. Among the 16 PoTl isolates tested, 9 were insensitive to TPCL, 1 to TOL, 16 to RH6G and 1 to CHX. The PoTl isolates were grouped into four distinct multidrug resistance phenotypes (MDRPs) based on resistance to combinations of fungicides and antifungal efflux pump substrates. Insensitivity to TPCL, RH6G and or TOL correlated well with DMI insensitivity, but MDR was not associated with SDHI resistance. The identification of multiple MDRP phenotypes associated with DMI resistance in our study warrants further research aimed at revealing the exact mechanisms of multidrug resistance in the wheat blast pathogen, including efflux pumps overexpression via transcriptomic analyses of differentially expressed genes; identification and discovery of mutations associated with changes in promoter regions or transcription factors of efflux transporters associated with multidrug resistance. ItemArtigoInoculation reduces nitrate accumulation and increases growth and nutrient accumulation in hydroponic arugula(2023-10-01) Oliveira, Thaissa Julyanne Soares Sena [UNESP]; Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo da Silva [UNESP]; Jalal, Arshad [UNESP]; Gato, Isabela Martins Bueno [UNESP]; Rauf, Kamran [UNESP]; Moreira, Vitória de Almeida [UNESP]; de Lima, Bruno Horschut [UNESP]; Vitória, Letícia Schenaide [UNESP]; Giolo, Victoria Moraes [UNESP]; Teixeira Filho, Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPBs) has remarkably increased yield and nutrient uptake of crop plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bacterial inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth, accumulation of nutrients as well as N[sbnd]NH4+ and N[sbnd]NO3− in hydroponic arugula plants. The research was carried out in a nutrient film technique (NFT) system and designed in randomized blocks with 5 replications. The treatments consisted of inoculation with A. brasilense, B. subtilis and P. fluorescens via nutrient solution at a dose of 0.1 mL L−1 and without inoculation treatment. Inoculation with P. fluorescens promoted N[sbnd]NH4+ accumulation in shoots and roots by 311% and 119% respectively as compared to non-inoculated plants. Inoculations with A. brasilense, B. subtilis and P. fluorescens reduced N[sbnd]NO3− accumulation in shoots and roots by18 and 14% as compared to without inoculation treatments. Fresh and dry mass of roots, root volume and leaf chlorophyll index were increased with inoculation of P. fluorescens and being considered the most suitable inoculant for hydroponic arugula cultivation. Inoculation with A. brasilense, P. fluorescens and B. subtilis reduced shoot N[sbnd]NO3− accumulation, thus benefiting human health. ItemArtigoSoybean Yield and Nutrition Grown on the Straw of Grain Sorghum Inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and Intercropped with BRS Paiaguás Grass(2023-05-01) Soares, Deyvison de Asevedo; Modesto, Viviane Cristina [UNESP]; Nakao, Allan Hisashi [UNESP]; Soares, Wellington Rosa; Freitas, Leandro Alves [UNESP]; Dickmann, Lourdes [UNESP]; Pascoaloto, Isabô Melina [UNESP]; Andreotti, Marcelo [UNESP]; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The adoption of diversified agricultural systems that employ integrated cultural practices appears to be the way to sustainably intensify tropical agriculture. Our objectives were to evaluate the dry matter (DM) accumulation of sorghum inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, with or without a nitrogen fertilization split, intercropped with palisade grass (Urochloa brizantha cv. BRS Paiaguás), and how these practices influenced the nutrition and development of soybean in succession. The design was a randomized complete block in a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial, consisting of sorghum monoculture cropped or intercropped with palisade grass, sorghum either inoculated or not with A. brasilense, and nitrogen applied at 120 kg ha−1 N only at sowing, only at topdressing, or split—30% at sowing and 70% at topdressing at the beginning of the panicle initiation stage. The residual impacts of these treatments on the following soybean crop were also evaluated. Higher DM yield occurred in sorghum inoculated with A. brasilense, however, this result varied by year. The sorghum–palisade grass intercrop produced a higher amount of straw than sorghum monoculture. The nutrition of soybean was adequate regardless of treatments, but grain yield was higher when the sorghum residue was inoculated. The inoculation of A. brasilense in sorghum intercropped with palisade grass increased yield. The nutrition of soybean was adequate regardless of the treatments, while grain yield was higher on the inoculated sorghum residues. The inoculation of A. brasilense in sorghum intercropped with palisade grass increased DM yield. The intercropping increased the production of biomass for animal grazing and DM for soil coverage. The inoculation of sorghum by A. brasilense and its intercropping with palisade grass contributed to higher soybean yield in succession. ItemArtigoIn vitro germination of passion fruit seeds in the function of tegument removal and culture media(2023-01-01) Faria, Glaucia A. [UNESP]; Lopes, Beatriz G.; Suares-Rocha, Paula [UNESP]; Ferreira, Antonio F. A.; Maltoni, Katia L. [UNESP]; Silvério Junior, Luiz H.; Pigari, Lucas B. [UNESP]; Felizardo, Lucas M. [UNESP]; Furlani Júnior, Enes [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Faculdade Centro Mato-grossense/Departamento de AgronomiaThe presence of salts in the culture medium and the addition of phytohormones, necessary to break seed dormancy in the in vitro germination of passion fruit, can induce critical values of osmotic potential. This can change the membrane permeability of seeds, affecting the hydration rate, enzyme release, ion transport, pH, and inhibitor values, which may decrease germination percentage. The aim of this study was to evaluate different types of culture media, composed of other substances, combined with mechanical techniques of tegument removal to determine the most appropriate culture medium for the in vitro germination of Passiflora edulis (Sims flavicarpa Deg.) seeds obtained by open pollination. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 10 × 3 factorial scheme (10 culture media × three types of seed-intact, scarified, and cut), with eight replicates and five seeds per plot. Scarified seeds cultivated in a medium composed of a commercial substrate and gibberellic acid presented a higher percentage of germination than intact or cut seeds cultivated in different concentrations of Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium. Scarification is a satisfactory method for breaking the dormancy of passion fruit seeds, and commercial substrates Bioflora® enriched with gibberellic acid may replace in vitro germination. ItemResenhaRegulatory Mechanisms of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria and Plant Nutrition against Abiotic Stresses in Brassicaceae Family(2023-01-01) Jalal, Arshad [UNESP]; da Silva Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo [UNESP]; Galindo, Fernando Shintate [UNESP]; Rosa, Poliana Aparecida Leonel [UNESP]; Gato, Isabela Martins Bueno [UNESP]; de Lima, Bruno Horschut [UNESP]; Teixeira Filho, Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Extreme environmental conditions, such as abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, heat, chilling and intense light), offer great opportunities to study how different microorganisms and plant nutrition can influence plant growth and development. The intervention of biological agents such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) coupled with proper plant nutrition can improve the agricultural importance of different plant species. Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) belongs to the monophyletic taxon and consists of around 338 genera and 3709 species worldwide. Brassicaceae is composed of several important species of economical, ornamental and food crops (vegetables, cooking oils, forage, condiments and industrial species). Sustainable production of Brassicas plants has been compromised over the years due to several abiotic stresses and the unbalanced utilization of chemical fertilizers and uncertified chemicals that ultimately affect the environment and human health. This chapter summarized the influence of PGPRs and nutrient management in the Brassicaceae family against abiotic stresses. The use of PGPRs contributed to combating climate-induced change/abiotic factors such as drought, soil and water salinization and heavy metal contamination that limits the general performance of plants. Brassica is widely utilized as an oil and vegetable crop and is harshly affected by abiotic stresses. Therefore, the use of PGPRs along with proper mineral nutrients management is a possible strategy to cope with abiotic stresses by improving biochemical, physiological and growth attributes and the production of brassica in an eco-friendly environment. ItemArtigoNutrition and yield of hydroponic arugula under inoculation of beneficial microorganisms(2023-04-01) Gato, Isabela Martins Bueno [UNESP]; da Silva Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo [UNESP]; Oliveira, Thaissa Julyanne Soares Sena [UNESP]; Jalal, Arshad [UNESP]; de Almeida Moreira, Vitória [UNESP]; Giolo, Victoria Moraes [UNESP]; Vitória, Letícia Schenaide [UNESP]; de Lima, Bruno Horschut [UNESP]; Vargas, Pablo Forlan [UNESP]; Filho, Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The use of beneficial fungi and bacteria can improve growth, yield and food quality of plants. The electrical conductivity (EC) of a nutrient solution is closely linked to better nutrition of arugula plants in a hydroponic system. Therefore, objectives of current study were to evaluate isolated and combined effect of inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and Trichoderma hazianum under two ECs on root-shoot biomass, nutrition and yield of arugula in hydroponic cultivation system. The experiment was designed in a strip-plot block with five replications in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme. The treatments were consisted of four microbial inoculations (without, A. brasilense, T. harzianum and co-inoculation of both) and two ECs (1.4 and 1.6 dS m−1). The higher EC with A. brasilense inoculation provided greater growth of arugula plants in a hydroponic system. Inoculation with A. brasilense has increased leaf area, shoot–root length, leaf chlorophyll index (LCI) and shoot ammonium accumulation while reduced root-shoot nitrate accumulation. The leaf nutrition or biofortification of arugula plants with K, S, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Mn was improved under both isolated and combined inoculations of A. brasilense and T. harzianum. ItemArtigoJatropha curcas L. as a Plant Model for Studies on Vegetative Propagation of Native Forest Plants(2022-10-01) Lustosa Sobrinho, Renato; Zoz, Tiago; Finato, Taciane; Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo da Silva [UNESP]; Neto, Sebastião Soares de Oliveira; Zoz, André [UNESP]; Alaraidh, Ibrahim A.; Okla, Mohammad K.; Alwasel, Yasmeen A.; Beemster, Gerrit; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná; Mato Grosso do Sul State University; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Agricultural Defense Coordination of São Paulo; King Saud University; University of Antwerp; Beni-Suef UniversityHighlights: Jatropha curcas L. has great potential to be used as a model plant in several studies involving native forest species. The immersion in the 2,4-D solution accelerated the emission of primary roots in hardwood cuttings. Studies on vegetative propagation of native species can use Jatropha curcas L. species as a model for obtaining important information in a short time and reducing labor costs. The immersion of cuttings of native species in solutions with low concentrations of 2,4-D can favor the rooting process and vegetative propagation. Even though it is a forest native plant, there are already several studies evaluating the small genome of Jatropha curcas L., which belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family, and may be an excellent representative model for the other plants from the same family. Jatropha curcas L. plant has fast growth, precocity, and great adaptability, facilitating silvicultural studies, allowing important information to be obtained quickly, and reducing labor costs. This information justifies the use of the species as a model plant in studies involving the reproduction of native plants. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of using Jatropha curcas L. as a model plant for studies involving native forest plants and establish possible recommendations for the vegetative propagation of the species using hardwood cuttings. The information collected can be helpful to other native forest plant species, similar to Jatropha curcas L. To this end, the effects of hardwood cutting length (10, 20, and 30 cm) and the part of the hardwood cuttings (basal, middle, and apex) were evaluated. Moreover, the influence of immersing the hardwood cuttings in solutions containing micronutrients (boron or zinc) or plant regulators (2,4-D, GA3) and a biostimulant composed of kinetin (0.09 g L−1), gibberellic acid (0.05 g L−1), and 4-indole-3-butyric acid (0.05 g L−1). The experiments were carried out in duplicates. In one duplicate, sand was used as the substrate, and rooting evaluations were made 77 days after planting. In another duplicate, a substrate composed of 50% soil, 40% poultry litter, and 10% sand was used, and the evaluations of the saplings were performed 120 days after planting. The GA3 solutions inhibited the roots’ and sprouts’ emissions, while immersion in 2,4-D solution increased the number of primary roots at 77 days after planting. The hardwood cuttings from the basal part of the branch had the best results for producing saplings. ItemArtigoAddition of amendments to restore a compacted soil under no-tillage system(2023-01-01) Barbieri, Rayner Sversut; Gabioud, Emmanuel Adrian; Wilson, Marcelo Germán; Sasal, Maria Carolina; Seehaus, Mariela; García-Tomillo, Aitor; Silva, Tatiane Carla [UNESP]; Montanari, Rafael [UNESP]; Faculdades Associadas de Uberaba; Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria; Advanced Scientific Research Center; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The addition of organic and inorganic amendments can improve soil structure and reduce soil compaction. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate whether the application of amendments reduces penetration resistance (PR) in the short term and describe the spatial variability of PR in the surface horizon of an Aquic Argiudoll under no-tillage in northeast Argentina. Four treatments, consisting of surface applications of 7.5 Mg ha−1 poultry litter (PL), 3.0 Mg ha−1 gypsum (G), the combination of PL+G, and untreated control (T), were arranged in a complete randomized block design with three replications. Two more treatments were added to the experiment 12 months later, consisting of PL reapplications on half of the surface of the PL+G and PL treatments (PL+G+PL and PL+PL, respectively) in a split-plot design with three replications in 4×20-m plots. PR was determined in the field with an Eijkelkamp penetrologger following a 2-m long transect perpendicular to the sowing direction at 10 different spots separated 0.2 m from each other. The spatial variability was quantified for each treatment using semivariograms. The highest PR was observed in the T treatment (1.96 MPa) and the lowest PR in PL+G+PL (0.21 MPa). All treatments showed a high spatial dependence (94.9 to 99.9%). Treatments with PL reapplication (PL+PL and PL+G+PL) showed profiles with lower PR and more homogeneous kriging maps. PL reapplication on PL treatments showed no effects on PR values. However, PL reapplication on the PL+G treatment led to positive effects in all PR ranges. Thus, the PL+G+PL treatment, which had the highest PR values, showed a decrease in PR from 54.17 to 6.65% with the reapplication 12 months later. The addition of organic and inorganic amendments reduced specific compacted soil areas on the surface horizon of an Aquic Argiudoll under no-tillage.