Artigos - Centro de Isótopos Estáveis (CIE) - Botucatu

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    Dietary expansion facilitates the persistence of a large frugivore in fragmented tropical forests
    (2021-01-01) Magioli, Marcelo; Villar, Nacho [UNESP]; Jorge, Maria Luisa; Biondo, Cibele; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Bradham, Jennifer; Pedrosa, Felipe; Costa, Vladimir [UNESP]; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; Galetti, Mauro [UNESP]; Instituto Pró-Carnívoros; Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Netherlands Institute of Ecology; Vanderbilt University; Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC); Fundação Neotrópica do Brasil; Wofford College; Mão na Mata – Manejo e Soluções Ambientais; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); University of Miami
    How species persist in fragmented habitats is essential to understanding species resilience in response to increasing anthropogenic pressures. It has been suggested that expansion in dietary niche allows populations to persist in human-modified landscapes, yet this hypothesis has been poorly tested in highly diverse ecosystems such as tropical forests where frugivory is ubiquitous. Here, we measured dietary niche expansion of a large forest-dwelling mammal, the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil, by comparing its diet using stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes. We collected hair of white-lipped peccaries in three continuous and three fragmented forests and compared δ13C and δ15N values, resource use and isotopic niches among populations and between forest types. We also tested the relationship between isotopic values of the populations and the forest cover percentage. White-lipped peccaries fed mainly on forest sources (C3 resources), especially in continuous forests, but 28% of the individuals in fragmented sites also incorporated C4 resources to some extent. In fragmented forests, the populations had isotopic niches from 3- to 3.6-fold the size of those in continuous forests. This niche expansion was due to the consumption of food items with higher δ15N values and C4 crops. Differences among populations were larger among fragmented forests, suggesting variable site-specific strategies to cope with habitat loss. The mean isotopic values of white-lipped peccary populations were negatively correlated with the loss of forest cover. Some small forest fragments might still retain relatively high habitat quality, and white-lipped peccaries might be able to capitalize on such variety of resources, shifting their diets from those observed in continuous forests. We suggest that high dietary flexibility and dietary expansion toward consumption of non-forest resources might facilitate the persistence of large frugivores in fragmented habitats.
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    Diet of invasive wild pigs in a landscape dominated by sugar cane plantations
    (2021-10-01) Pedrosa, Felipe [UNESP]; Bercê, William [UNESP]; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro [UNESP]; Levi, Taal; Galetti, Mauro [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Mão na Mata - Manejo e Soluções Ambientais; Oregon State University; University of Miami
    Understanding the mechanisms by which alien species become invasive can assure successful control programs and mitigate alien species' impacts. The distribution of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) has been sharply expanding throughout all regions of Brazil in the last few years. Here we demonstrate that large monocultural plantations provide the primary resource subsidies to invasive wild pigs in Brazil. We analyzed 106 stomach contents and carbon stable isotopes (δ13C) of 50 hair samples of wild pigs from a population immersed in a landscape dominated by sugar cane agriculture. Stomach contents were dominated by corn (41%), sugarcane (28.5%), vegetal matter (all other vegetation besides crops, 27%), and animal matter (vertebrates and invertebrates, 4%). Bayesian mixing model analysis of δ13C showed that food sources from C4 photosynthetic pathway (represented by corn and sugarcane) accounted for 94% of the long-term diet, while C3 food sources for only 6.2%. Our results indicate that corn and sugar cane are subsidizing the diet of wild pigs and can facilitate the population growth of this invasive species. Given that Brazil is a major agricultural producer and a hotspot of biodiversity, it is extremely concerning that extensive agriculture may accelerate the expansion of this invasive species, resulting in economic losses and cascading effects on natural habitats.
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    Differential use of trophic resources between an exotic and a coexisting native snail
    (2022-01-01) Altieri, Paula; Paz, Laura Estefanía; Ferreira, Ana Clara; Colpo, Karine Delevati; Rodrigues Capítulo, Alberto; Jensen, Roberto; Costa, Vladimir [UNESP]; Ocon, Carolina; Universidad Nacional de La Plata); Universidad Nacional de La Plata; UNCPBA; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Knowing the interactions between exotic and native species is essential to establish possible threats to the local fauna. In this study, we assessed the use of food resources and diet overlap between a recently introduced snail, Sinotaia quadrata, and a native species, Pomacea canaliculata. We analyzed the gut content and stable isotope of snails and resources in a lowland stream where both species coexist. Both Schoener’s and isotope dietary overlap indexes supported dietary overlap. Conversely, gut content analysis showed differences in consumption: S. quadrata consumed more detritus and diatoms than P. canaliculata, whose diet was characterized by detritus and macrophyte remains. Macrophytes were the resource that most contributed to the diet of both species, as shown by stable isotope mixing models. The combination of both techniques, gut content and stable isotope analysis, indicated that S. quadrata consumed macrophyte detritus while P. canaliculata ate fresh macrophytes. This difference indicates differential use of food resources between the studied species coexisting in a lowland stream. Although no negative trophic interaction was found, we highlight the importance of continuing to monitor interactions for other resources and studying possible risks to the local fauna.
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    Genetics components of rice root architecture and carbon isotopic fractionation parameters: a tracer for breeding in a water-saving irrigation management
    (2022-01-01) Brito, Giovani G.; Concenço, Germani; Costa, Vladimir E. [UNESP]; Fagundes, Paulo Ricardo R.; da Silva-Filho, João Luis; Parfitt, José Maria B.; Magalhães, Ariano; Silva, Giovana T.; Jardim, Thaís M.; Luccas, Nathália Furtado; Scivittaro, Walkyria B.; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel
    Phenotyping is the major bottleneck in the effort to develop varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) suitable for growing under a water-saving irrigation management, such as alternate wetting and drying irrigation techniques (AWD). To analyze if the genotypic variability for carbon isotope discrimination (CID) in rice leaves could be used as a relatively high-throughput tracer to early select superior genotypes highlighting improved root architecture traits when submitted to AWD, a set of twenty varieties grown under semi-natural conditions were submitted to two water irrigation regimes, continuous flooding (CF) and AWD cycles. Coefficients of genetic variance (π2g) obtained for root architecture, micro-morphological and physiological traits were significant for all of them regardless of the adopted irrigation system, except to mean root diameter. The three significant principal components (PCs) with eigenvalue > 1, explain most of the total variation across cycles and water regimes. For most of analyzed traits, the values of heritability coefficients were higher regardless of adopted irrigation management and trait category; for CID, the magnitudes of broad heritability at an individual level (greater than 0.80) were similar in the two irrigation techniques, evidencing that the success of the selection is independent of irrigation management. The higher CID values after three AWD cycles are associated with varieties with higher total root length and volume. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the potential application of CID as a tracer to select root architecture traits in rice when water-saving irrigation management is of concern.
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    Frozen zooplankton is efficient as natural food during pirarucu Arapaima gigas weaning
    (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-04-06) Lima, Adriana Ferreira; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Oeda; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro [UNESP]; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA); Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The commercial production of carnivorous fish depends on the feed training that can be made through the direct transition from natural food to inert food. As using live natural food requires care in production, alternative methods of using live food are necessary, such as freezing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of frozen zooplankton as an initial diet in the feed training of pirarucu Arapaima gigas juveniles. Three hundred and twenty pirarucu juveniles (13.94 +/- 4.99 g) were submitted to weaning with two different initial diets (treatments): live zooplankton and frozen zooplankton. The co-feeding period was 12 days, with a progressive increase in the amount of feed offered and a decrease in zooplankton every three days. At the end of the training, all fish were ready to be fed with commercial feed. There was no mortality in the experiment and no significant differences (p > 0.05) for weight, length, weight variation coefficient, specific growth rate, intestinal coefficient, hepatosomatic index, muscle layer thickness and height of the branched folds intestinal mucosa, moisture, crude protein and carcass energy for fish that received live or frozen zooplankton as a starter. Isotopic values of delta N-15 and delta C-13 in the fish's muscle were similar (p > 0.05), reinforcing no feeding preference of the fish between the live or frozen zooplankton. The water quality was not influenced by the use of initial diet (p > 0.05). The frozen zooplankton can be used as initial food for pirarucu juveniles feed training, without impairing fish growth and survival.
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    Standardization of a sample-processing methodology for stable isotope studies in poultry
    (2019-01-01) Denadai, Juliana Celia [UNESP]; Sartori, J. B. [UNESP]; Pezzato, A. C. [UNESP]; Costa, V. E. [UNESP]; Sartori, Mmp [UNESP]; Petinati, Bes [UNESP]; Gennari, R. S. [UNESP]; Silva, E. T. [UNESP]; Carvalho, Mag [UNESP]; Ishizuka, And [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The objective of this study was to determine if lipid extraction processes alter the isotopic value of δ13C and δ15N of tissues (pectoral muscle, thigh and liver) and eggs and if the use of anticoagulants interferes with blood and plasma δ13C and δ15N isotopic values. Samples were acquired from the same flock of birds. The 32 egg samples were randomly divided into four treatments (liquid, dehydrated, and fat-extracted with ether or chloroform + methanol) with eight replicates each. The 24 samples of pectoral muscle, thigh muscle and liver of broilers were randomly divided into three treatments (dehydrated, fat-extracted with ether and chloroform + methanol) with eight replicates each. Blood samples were divided into a 3x3 factorial arrangement with three physical forms (liquid, oven-dried or freeze-dried) and three collection methods (with no anticoagulant, with EDTA or heparin). Plasma samples were distributed in a 3x2 factorial arrangement, with three physical forms (liquid, ovendried, or freeze-dried) and two anticoagulants (EDTA or heparin). The obtained isotopic results were submitted to the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and univariate (ANOVA, complemented by Tukey’ test), using the GLM procedure of the statistical program SAS (1996) or Minitab 16. The results show that it is possible to use the evaluated methods of fat extraction, drying and anticoagulants in the isotopic analyses of carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 in chicken tissues.
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    Distance from the trunk and depth of uptake of labelled nitrate for dominant and suppressed trees in Brazilian Eucalyptus plantations: Consequences for fertilization practices
    (2019-09-01) Pinheiro, Rafael Costa [UNESP]; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Bordron, Bruno; Aló, Lívia Lanzi [UNESP]; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro [UNESP]; Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Meersche, Karel Van den; Stape, José Luiz; Guerrini, Iraê Amaral [UNESP]; Laclau, Jean-Paul [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp); UMR Eco&Sols; University of Montpellier; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Suzano SA Company
    Climate changes will increase the probability of drought, which is likely to dramatically increase tree mortality. The capacity of trees to withdraw water in deep soil layers is an important trait likely to account for tree survival over prolonged droughts. Our study aimed to gain insight into the maximum distance from the trunk where Eucalyptus fine roots take up water and mobile nutrients in deep sandy soils during dry periods. NO3 −-15N was injected in the soil at the end of the rainy season in commercial Eucalyptus stands planted with the same E. urophylla × E. grandis clone. The 15N tracer was applied in the middle of the inter-row (replicated in 3 plots): at 5 depths (from 0.1 to 6 m)at age 0.6 year, at 4 depths (from 0.1 to 9 m)at age 1.2 years, at 5 depths (from 0.1 to 12 m)at age 2.2 years, and at 6 depths (from 0.1 to 15 m)at age 6.4 years. δ15N was determined in leaves sampled in dominant and suppressed trees at different distances from each injection area, 4–5 months after NO3 −-15N injection (after the dry season). While dominant trees took up NO3 −-15N down to a depth of 6 m between 7 and 12 months after planting, the maximum depth of NO3 −-15N uptake for suppressed trees was between 3 and 4.5 m. From 1.5 to 6 years after planting, a foliar enrichment in 15N was mainly detected when the NO3 −-15N tracer was injected in the upper soil layers and only for a few trees at a depth of 6 m. Most of the uptake of 15N occurred within 2 m of horizontal distance from the injection site, whatever tree age and tree social status. Low amounts of NO3 −-15N were taken up for injection sites located between 2 m and 5 m from the trunk, and 15N uptake was never detected at horizontal distances greater than 6 m from the trunk. Eucalyptus fine roots can take up nitrates at depths between 6 and 8 m the first year after planting. However, the NO3 −-15N tracer injected at a depth of 6 m was only taken up by dominant trees and a 15N foliar enrichment of suppressed trees was only detected when the tracer was injected in the upper 3 m. Fertilizers must be applied within 2 m of the trunks in Eucalyptus plantations to be taken up by all trees, regardless of their social status. When fertilizations are concentrated the first months after planting in sandy soils, nutrient leaching in deep layers might increase the heterogeneity of the stands since mobile nutrients could only be taken up by dominant trees.
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    Characterization of the Poultry Litter Biomass for Production of Biochar
    (Brazilian Chemical Soc, 2019-07-01) Pereira, Moises E.; Varanda, Luciano D.; Nakashima, Gabriela T.; Hansted, Ana Larissa S. [UNESP]; Silva, Diego A. da; Tomeleri, Joao Otavio P.; Belini, Gabriela B.; Yamaji, Fabio M.; Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar); Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Brazil emerges as the world's second-largest producer of broiler chicken. In production, there is the formation of the poultry litter, usually consisting of sawdust, water, feed, droppings and feather of the chickens. After the chicken lots are created, the material is discarded. The aim of this study was to characterize the biomass from poultry litter to analyze its potential as a raw material for biochar. The samples were collected in three different times: Pinus spp. sawdust, poultry litter with creation of one chicken lot and with creation of two chicken lots. Moisture tests and proximate analyzes were performed for the three materials and chemical analyzes for the two poultry litter samples. The chemical analyzes did not present significant differences among the samples. The tests showed an increase in moisture content as the chicken lots were create in the litter, reaching 22.11 % after the creation of two lots. The results indicated that from two lots of chickens it is not appropriate to create more lots with the same litter. This material is generally discarded. However, the poultry litter with creation of two lots showed potential to be harnessed as raw material in the manufacture of biochar.
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    Use of stable isotopes of carbon to detect coconut water adulteration
    (Univ Sao Paolo, 2019-05-01) Imaizumi, Vitor Massami [UNESP]; Pereira Sartori, Maria Marcia [UNESP]; Ducatti, Carlos [UNESP]; Venturini Filho, Waldemar Gastoni [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Industrialized coconut water may have been adulterated by adding sugar above the limit permitted by law. According to Brazilian law, industrialized coconut water can receive the maximum addition of 1 g of sugar per 100 mL of the drink. This work aimed to detect adulteration in industrialized coconut water produced in Brazil and measure the relative isotopic enrichment in fresh coconut water, using the techniques of stable isotopes of carbon. Fresh coconut water samples from 13 locations, industrialized coconut water samples of 17 different brands and cane sugar were analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer coupled to an elemental analyzer. The relative isotopic enrichment found for fresh coconut water samples ranged from -26.40 to -23.76. From 17 brands of coconut water analyzed, 11 were adulterated by excess sugar and two were already adulterated by presenting soluble solids content higher above the threshold permitted by law. In 65 % of Brazilian industrialized coconut water, the amount of exogenous sugar is higher than the limit permitted by law. Most Brazilian companies do not respect the legal limit of adding cane sugar established by law.
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    Statistical analysis of lake sediment geochemical data for understanding surface geological factors and processes: An example from Amazonian upland lakes, Brazil
    (Elsevier B.V., 2019-04-01) Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Felix Guimaraes, Jose Tasso; Martins Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir; Powell, Mike A.; Silva, Marcio Sousa da; Moraes, Aline Mamede; Alves, Ronnie; Leite, Alessandro Saba; Nascimento Junior, Wilson; Rodrigues, Tarcisio Magevski; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro [UNESP]; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Inst Tecnol Vale; Univ Fed Para; Geocon Environm Consulting; Gerencia Meio Ambiente Minas Carajas; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Statistical evaluation applied to geochemical data of upland lake sediments and their catchment basins rocks from Serra dos Carajas was used to identify geochemical signatures associated with underlying processes, sediment provenances, and source-sink relationship. The lakes are Violao, Amendoim and Tres Irmas - TI1, TI2 and TI3. A centred log-ratio transformation (clr) was used prior to multivariate analyses in order to eliminate closure issues in compositional data. Due to the similarity between delta N-15 values and organic sources (mainly from C3 plants), the three lakes were clustered together. Violao Lake receives largest organic contribution from autochthonous sources, such as siliceous sponge spicules and algae, except for it shallower portion (WNW extension), which is more similar to TI2, having low delta N-15 values that are similar to the isotopic signature of upland swamps. The upper continental crust (UCC) normalization pattern shows that sediments are mainly enriched in Fe, P and Se, which is closely related to the catchment lithology. The distribution of elements in TI2 is significantly different from the other lakes, because it is dominated by organic carbon, while the other lakes are a mix of detritus and organic carbon. Factor Analysis (FA) using clr-transformed data distinguishes several geochemical assemblages in the sediments, with the major detritic groups being similar to catchment basin laterites: the Ti-Zr-Hf-Nb-Y-HREEs group corresponds to resistant minerals which remained stable during lateritization; the LREEs group reflects mobilization and reprecipitation by REE bearing minerals; and the Al-V-Cr-Sc association reflects metavolcanic rock. The Fe-P-Mo-As-Zn cluster in the sediments is attributed to Fe-oxyhydroxide precipitation, while TOC-SO3-Hg-Se group is controlled by organic matter. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) further indicates that detritic lake sediments are not directly derived from the parent rocks, but from weathered crusts, mainly ferruginous laterites and soils, which is consistent with their elements ratios.
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    Evaluation of growth performance and gastro-intestinal parameters on the response of weaned piglets to dietary organic acids
    (2018-01-01) Grecco, Henrique A. T. [UNESP]; Amorim, Alessandro B.; Saleh, Mayra Anton Dib [UNESP]; Tse, Marcos L. P. [UNESP]; Telles, Filipe G. [UNESP]; Miassi, Gabriela M. [UNESP]; Pimenta, Guilherme M. [UNESP]; Berto, Dirlei A. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp); Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso/ UFMT
    Two experiments (E) were carried out to evaluate the effects of fumaric acid and an acidifier blend [composed by calcium formate, calcium lactate and medium-chain fatty acids (capric and caprylic)] in piglet diets containing colistin (40 ppm) or halquinol (120 ppm) on performance, diarrhea incidence (E1), organs relative weight, pH values, intestinal morphometry and microbiota (E2). In E1, 192 and E2, 24 piglets weaned at 21-day-old were randomly assigned to blocks with 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments [absence or presence of fumaric acid x absence or presence of acidifier blend], six replicates of eight (E1) and one piglet per pen (E2). For E1, the treatments were control (CD): no acidifier product + 40 ppm of colistin, FA: fumaric acid in absence of acidifier blend, AB: acidifier blend in absence of fumaric acid and, AF+AB: presence of fumaric acid and acidifier blend. For E2, the pre-starter I diet were used and the same treatments as E1 evaluated. No treatment effects (P>0.05) were observed on performance, diarrhea incidence (E1), gut pH values and duodenum morphometry of piglets (E2). However, the addition of AB increased (P<0.05) large intestine relative weight and, FA addition decreased (P<0.05) pancreas relative weight, jejunum villi height and, total coliform and E. coli counts in cecum. The inclusion of FA and AB in diets containing colistin or halquinol did not improve performance, although FA exerted an inhibitory effect on cecum microbiota.
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    Estimation of the metabolic rate by assessing carbon-13 turnover in broiler tissues using the stable isotope technique
    (2018-04-01) Pelícia, V. C. [UNESP]; Araujo, P. C. [UNESP]; Luiggi, F. G. [UNESP]; Stradiotti, A. C. [UNESP]; Denadai, J. C. [UNESP]; Sartori, J. R. [UNESP]; Pacheco, P. D.G. [UNESP]; Dornelas, L. C. [UNESP]; Silva, E. T. [UNESP]; Souza-Kruliski, C. R. [UNESP]; Pimenta, G. E.M. [UNESP]; Ducatti, C. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The aim of this study was to estimate the metabolic rate of broiler tissues by assessing carbon turnover in different growth phases by using the stable isotope technique and by evaluating the natural changes in Carbon-13 (13C) between C3 and C4 cycle plants. Six-hundred 1-day-old broiler chicks were divided into six groups and subjected to dietary changes containing different isotopic values at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days of age. Birds of Group 1 received diets composed predominantly of C3 cycle plants shortly after accommodation, while birds of other groups remained predominantly fed with C4 diet. The diet of Group 2 was mainly replaced by C3 diet on the 7th day of age. Group 3 started to receive C3 diet on the 14th day of age, whereas the diet of Group 4 was replaced on the 21st, Group 5 on the 28th. In Group 6, the substitution occurred on the 35th day of age. Samples of the pectoral muscle, keel, tibia, legs muscle, intestinal mucosa, blood, plasma, and feathers were collected. Carbon isotope ratios were determined by mass-spectrometry of isotope ratios. To measure the speed of carbon substitution after a set interval (turnover), a time exponential function was employed and obtained by exponential equations of the first order calculated with Minitab® 16 software. The carbon half-life varied from 1.78 to 8.20 days for the pectoral muscle, from 1.91 to 12.24 days for the keel, from 2.32 to 10.71 days for the tibia, from 1.87 to 9.43 days for the leg muscle, from 0.8 to 1.58 days for the intestinal mucosa, from 0.64 to 1.71 days for the plasma, from 2.61 to 11.07 days for blood, and from 1.84 to 28.41 days for the feathers during the total growth phase. With the exception of tibia and blood, all other tissues presented a high metabolic rate in the first week of the broilers’ life. The metabolic rate of tissues is faster in younger animals, and the metabolism slows down as the broilers get older. The metabolic rates in the pectoral muscle, keel, tibia, and feathers decreased with age, whereas those of the plasma and intestinal mucosa were high in all evaluated periods; thus, these tissues can be used to study traceability of feed at all stages of the broilers’ life.
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    Análise isotópica do carbono e legalidade de polpas, sucos tropicais e néctares comerciais de goiaba
    (2016-01-01) Nogueira, Andressa Milene Parente [UNESP]; Figueira, Ricardo [UNESP]; Ducatti, Carlos [UNESP]; Venturini Filho, Waldemar Gastoni [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The aim of this study was to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in guava commercial pulps, tropical juices and nectars through the carbon stable isotope technique to identify the beverages at odds with Brazilian law. The isotope analyzes were performed in the following materials: cane sugar, additives, laboratory-fabricated beverages and commercial beverages. After preparation, the samples were packed in tin capsules and inserted into the elemental analyzer (EA 1108 - CHN - Fisons Elemental Analyzer) to determine the relative isotope enrichment in Isotopic Ratios Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) (Delta S Finnigan Mat). To estimate the error of the isotope method were produced in laboratory sweetened tropical juices and nectars according to their Identity and Quality Pattern (PIQ) and also adulterated beverages with amount of pulp below of the established by Brazilian law. In these beverages was measured the theoretical percentage and determined in IRMS the practical percentage of C3 source. The difference between these measurements represented the error of the method. To determine the legality of commercial beverages was measured the Legal Limit (LL) according to the PIQ of each beverage. The LL provided the minimum concentration of C3 source that a beverage must contain to be considered legal by the Brazilian legislation. Eighteen brands of guava non-alcoholic beverages were analyzed. Four brands were classified as adulterated. The technique that uses carbon stable isotopes to check adulteration in beverages allowed identifying with security the fraudulent products. The legal limit was an important methodological innovation that made it possible to identify adulterated beverages.
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    Dietary lysine deficiency increases the incorporation rate of nitrogen-free compounds in muscle of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)
    (2017-10-01) Abimorad, Eduardo Gianini; Ducatti, Carlos [UNESP]; Castellani, Daniela; Jomori, Rosângela Kiyoko; Portella, Maria Célia [UNESP]; Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira [UNESP]; Carneiro, Dalton José [UNESP]; Centro APTA do Pescado Continental; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp); FAFRAM/FE – Faculdade Dr. Francisco Maeda/Fundação educacional
    Isotopic experiments are conducted to evaluate turnover rates in fish tissue, especially as a function of nutrition. In 2007, Cerling et al. proposed an approach they named the reaction progress variable, which among other functions, allows to correct for growth during the period of data collection and to treat the isotopic incorporation system as a linear function, irrespective of the growth rate model. The objective of present study was to apply “the reaction progress variable” approach to describe stable isotope turnover in muscle tissue of pacu fed a lysine-deficient and a lysine-supplemented diet in order to determine the incorporation rates of nitrogen-free compounds, considering the correction for increases in mass during turnover. Since in muscle tissue carbon compounds are proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds include only proteins and nucleic acids, the incorporation rates of nitrogen-free compounds were calculated by the difference between the incorporation rates of carbon and nitrogen compounds. The δ13C and δ15N values were adjusted for the increase in mass of fish to determine incorporation rate constants through linear fit. High turnover rates were observed when the increase in mass was considered. There was no effect of the diets on the incorporation rates of carbon compounds into muscle tissue of juvenile pacu. Fish fed the lysine-deficient diet exhibited a higher metabolic δ15N turnover rate, probably because of the greater degradation of nitrogen compounds; consequently, the incorporation rate of nitrogen-free compounds was 1.23% day− 1. A higher incorporation rate of nitrogen compounds was observed in fish fed the lysine-supplemented diet and the incorporation rate of nitrogen-free compounds was therefore lower in this group (0.05% day− 1). The incorporation rate of nitrogen-free compounds (e.g., lipids and glycogen) into muscle tissue was higher in juvenile pacu fed the lysine-deficient diet compared to animals receiving the lysine-supplemented diet. We therefore propose to adopt the reaction progress variable approach as a more useful tool for describing isotopic incorporation datasets.
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    Natural Stable Isotopes for Determination of Gastrointestinal Transit Time in Fish
    (2016-02-01) de Sandre, Lidiane Cristina Gonçalves [UNESP]; Buzollo, Hellen [UNESP]; do Nascimento, Thiago Matias Torres [UNESP]; Neira, Lígia Maria [UNESP]; Abimorad, Eduardo Gianini; Jomori, Rosangela Kiyoko; Ducatti, Carlos [UNESP]; Portella, Maria Célia [UNESP]; Carneiro, Dalton José [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp); Instituto de Pesca/APTA/SAA; Faculdade Dr Francisco Maeda/FE
    This study evaluated the application of stable isotopes of carbon as an alternative and more accurate method to determine gastrointestinal transit time (GTT) in fish by comparing it to the inert marker method. The stable isotope method detects alterations of the normal carbon flow in a biological system by analyzing naturally occurring isotopes of carbon, contrary to studies based on conventional techniques that apply external markers to the diet to determine GTT through visual observation of the color change in feces. Therefore, 320 pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus juveniles were reared in 32 tanks under two different temperatures (25 and 29 C). The pacu juveniles received two different diets, one based on ingredients derived from C3 photosynthetic cycle plants and the other based on C4 plant ingredients, both containing titanium oxide (TiO2) as a marker. After 40 d, the isotopic signature of the diets was changed, and the marker was replaced by chromic oxide (Cr2O3). In the isotopic technique, the feces were analyzed to determine the exchange in the isotopic ratio of carbon δ13C. Both methods found that GTT was faster (nearly 6h) in fish at 29 C when using the C4/C3 feeding strategy and slower in fish at 25 C using the C3/C4 strategy (15h by inert marker and 18h by the isotopic method). In conclusion, GTT determination in pacu juveniles using the stable isotope technique exhibits the same accuracy obtained with the inert marker method at temperatures suitable (nearly 29 C) for the metabolism of these animals.
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    Método de análise isotópica (δ13C) em suco clarificado de maçã
    (2014-01-01) Figueira, Ricardo [UNESP]; Ducatti, Carlos [UNESP]; Mischan, Martha Maria [UNESP]; Filho, Waldemar Gastoni Venturini [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The aims of this study were to develop the method of isotope analysis to quantify the carbon of the C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial clarified apple juices and to measure the legal limit based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify the beverages that do not conform to the guidelines of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA). This beverage was produced in a laboratory, according to Brazilian legislation. Adulterated juices with a sugarcane quantity above the legal limit were also produced. Isotope analyses measured the relative isotope enrichment of clarified apple juices and their purified sugar fraction. From these results the C3 source concentration was estimated by means of the isotope dilution equation. To determine the existence of adulteration in commercial juices it was necessary to create a legal limit according to Brazilian legislation. Two commercial brands of clarified juice were analyzed. Taking the C3 source concentration and the ºBrix of commercial clarified juices, together with the legal limit, it was possible to verify that one sample certainly contained more sugarcane than the quantity established by the MAPA. The development of a legal limit was an important methodological innovation that made it possible to identify the beverages that did not conform to Brazilian legislation. The methodology developed proved efficient for quantifying the carbon of C3 origin in commercial clarified apple juices.
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    Turnover de carbono nos tecidos de frangos de corte em diferentes fases de crescimento
    (2014-01-01) Ducatti, Carlos [UNESP]; Mituo, Mariela Akie Okino [UNESP]; Denadai, Juliana Célia [UNESP]; Martins, Marcela Buosi [UNESP]; de Souza-Kruliski, Cibele Regina [UNESP]; Pelícia, Vanessa Cristina [UNESP]; Sartori, José Roberto [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    The aim of this study was to evaluate carbon turnover on muscle tissue Pectoralis major, keel, tibia and liver of poultry at different life stages using the carbon stable isotopes technique. 216 male chick lings (Cobb) were used. The trial was conduced in a totally random distribution consisting on seven treatments with distinct days for diet substitution (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 days old). Either Boltzmann sigmoid regression or the exponential time function were used in order to measure the carbon isotopic turnover in a specific period of time. The half-life were: 2.5; 2.8; 2.9; 4.9; 5.1; 5.5 e 6.0 day on muscle tissue; 2.7; 2.9; 3.1; 4.6; 5.3; 4.1 e 8.0 day on keel; 4.4; 3.6; 5.4; 5.8; 4.3; 5.2 e 6.3 day on tibia and 1.3; 1.9; 1.4; 1.5; 1.9; 1.7 and 2.1 day on liver, for to treatments T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 e T7 respectively. According to the results of this study, it is possible to conclude that the tibia has slowest metabolism and may indicate the isotopic signature of initial diets of poultry culture. The fast metabolism tissue, liver, is appropriated to reflect the diets fed at closer period of evaluation.
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    Timing carbon turnover (delta C-13) in weaned piglet's brain by IRMS
    (Acad Brasileira De Ciencias, 2018-08-01) Saleh, Mayra A. D. [UNESP]; Dos Santos, Luan S. [UNESP]; Berto, Dirlei A. [UNESP]; Amorim, Alessandro B.; Costa, Vladimir E. [UNESP]; Ducatti, Carlos [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS)
    Isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is a potential tool that provides time-integrated estimate of assimilated and not just ingested nutrients. This feature turned possible its application to evaluate the effects of dietary nucleotides and glutamate on carbon turnover (delta C-13) in the brain of weanling piglets. Eighty-seven piglets weaned at 21-day-old were used, being three piglets slaughtered at day-0 (prior to diet-switch) and, the remaining 84 randomly assigned in a complete block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (two nucleotide levels: 0% and 0.1% and, two glutamate levels: 0% and 1%). On trial days 3, 6, 9, 14, 21, 35 and 49, three piglets per treatment were also slaughtered. The samples were analyzed by IRMS and adjusted to the first-order equation by a nonlinear regression analysis using NLIN procedure of SAS, in order to obtain the exponential graphics. The carbon turnover (t(95%)) verified for cerebral tissue was faster (P<0.05) for diet containing glutamate in comparison to other diets, supporting the fact that glutamate contributed to develop the piglets' brain, due to the fastest incorporation of C-13-atoms in this tissue at post-weaning phase, despite the energy deficit experienced by them.
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    Water deficit modifies the carbon isotopic composition of lipids, soluble sugars and leaves of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae)
    (Soc Botanica Brasil, 2018-01-01) Silva Bertholdi, Angelo Albano da [UNESP]; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro [UNESP]; Rodrigues, Angelica Lino [UNESP]; Rolim de Almeida, Luiz Fernando [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Water deficit is most frequent in forest physiognomies subjected to climate change. As a consequence, several tree species alter tissue water potential, gas exchange and production of carbon compounds to overcome damage caused by water deficiency. The working hypothesis, that a reduction in gas exchange by plants experiencing water deficit will affect the composition of carbon compounds in soluble sugars, lipids and vegetative structures, was tested on Copaifera langsdorffii. Stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and CO2 assimilation rate declined after a period of water deficit. After rehydration, leaf water potential and leaf gas exchange did not recover completely. Water deficit resulted in C-13 enrichment in leaves, soluble sugars and root lipids. Furthermore, the amount of soluble sugars and root lipids decreased after water deficit. In rehydration, the carbon isotopic composition and amount of root lipids returned to levels similar to the control. Under water deficit, C-13-enriched in root lipids assists in the adjustment of cellular membrane turgidity and avoids damage to the process of water absorption by roots. These physiological adjustments permit a better understanding of the responses of Copaifera langsdorffi to water deficit.
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    Geochemical characterization of the largest upland lake of the Brazilian Amazonia: Impact of provenance and processes
    (Elsevier B.V., 2017-12-01) Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Felix Guimaraes, Jose Tasso; Martins Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir; Silva, Marcio Sousa da; Nascimento Junior, Wilson; Powell, Mike A.; Reis, Luiza Santos; Ruiz Pessenda, Luiz Carlos; Rodrigues, TarcIsio Magevski; Silva, Delmo Fonseca da; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro [UNESP]; Inst Tecnol Vale; Univ Fed Para; Geocon Environm Consulting; Ctr Energia Nucl Agr; Dept Ferrosos Norte; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    Lake Tres Irmas (LTI), the largest upland lake in the Brazilian Amazonia, located in Serra dos Carajas, was characterized using multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry (delta 13(C) and delta N-15) to understand the significance of organic and inorganic sources, weathering and sedimentary processes on the distribution of elements in lake bottom (surficial) sediments. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from sedimentary organic matter suggest C3 terrestrial plants (forests > canga vegetation), macrophytes and freshwater DOC as the main sources. Sediments are depleted in most of the major oxides (except Fe2O3 and P2O5) when compared to upper continental crust (UCC) and their spatial distribution is highly influenced by catchment lithology. Principal Component Analysis revealed that most of the trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Y, V, Cr, Ga, Co, Ni) and REEs are closely correlated with Al and Ti (PC1; Group-1), so their redistribution is less influenced by post-depositional process. This is due to their relative immobility and being hosted by Al-bearing minerals during laterization. High Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mafic Index of Alteration (MIA) and Index of Laterization (IOL) values indicate intense chemical weathering at source areas, but the weathering transformation was better quantified by IOL. A-CN-K plot along with elemental ratios (Al/K, Ti/K, Ti/zr, La/Al, Cr/Th, Co/Th, La/Sm, La/Gd, Zr/ Y, and Eu/Eu*) as well as chondrite-normalized REE patterns show that the detritic sediments are mainly sourced from ferruginous laterites and soils in the catchment, which may have characteristics similar to mafic rocks. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.