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    Mapping Brazilian soil mineralogy using proximal and remote sensing data
    (2023-04-01) Rosin, Nícolas Augusto; Demattê, José A.M.; Poppiel, Raul Roberto; Silvero, Nélida E.Q.; Rodriguez-Albarracin, Heidy S.; Rosas, Jorge Tadeu Fim; Greschuk, Lucas Tadeu; Bellinaso, Henrique; Minasny, Budiman; Gomez, Cecile; Marques Júnior, José [UNESP]; Fernandes, Kathleen [UNESP]; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Coordination of Integrate Technical Assistance of Secretariat of Agriculture and Supply - CATI/SAA; The University of Sydney; Institut Agro; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Minerals control many soil functions and play a crucial role in addressing global existential issues. Measuring the abundance of soil minerals is a laborious, costly, and time-consuming task; however, soil spectroscopy can be a useful tool to overcome this issue. This work aimed to map the abundance of major mineralogical components of soils in Brazil from surface to 1 m deep and at a spatial resolution of 30 m. Spectral data of the Brazilian Soil Spectral Library with Vis-NIR-SWIR was used to estimate the abundance of haematite, goethite, kaolinite, and gibbsite. These minerals were spatialized using digital soil mapping techniques. We also developed a novel framework to obtain bare soil reflectance for areas without natural or anthropic soil exposure (continuous image) and used it as covariate. Soil minerals and their abundances were successfully estimated by Vis-NIR-SWIR reflectance. Haematite predictions presented the most accurate results with Random Forest models, followed by gibbsite, kaolinite, and goethite. The spatial validation with reference mineralogical data found R2 of 0.64 (haematite), 0.40 (goethite), 0.20 (kaolinite/Kt), 0.29 (gibbsite/Gbs), and 0.40 (Kt/Kt + Gbs). The resulting maps of soil minerals were in accordance with the geology, pedology, climate, and relief of Brazil and revealed the spatial distribution of mineral abundances at a finer resolution than existing geological and pedological maps, reaching a farm level detail.
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    Soil structure under tillage systems with and without cultivation in the off-season
    (2023-02-01) Fernandes, Mariele Monique Honorato [UNESP]; da Silva, Matheus Flavio [UNESP]; Ferraudo, Antônio Sérgio [UNESP]; Fernandes, Carolina [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Conservation systems, such as no-tillage, follow as principles the absence of soil tillage, formation and maintenance of vegetation cover, and crop rotation. Nevertheless, when one principle is not adequately adopted there may be alterations in soil aggregation and porosity. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate physical attributes and organic carbon of the soil in an area with tillage and fallow in the off-season and in areas without soil tillage, with fallow and with crop in the off-season. The soil of the three areas was characterized as an Oxisol with clayey texture. For more than 10 years, corn has been the main crop grown in the season period in the three areas: conventional soil tillage system with fallow in the off-season (CTS), no-tillage system with fallow in the off-season (NTS-f), and no-tillage system with grass-grass succession (NTS-g). Each area was sampled at 20 random points and soil samples were collected from the layers, 0–0.1 m, 0.1–0.2 m and 0.2–0.3 m. The data were subjected to multivariate factor analysis, where two factors were identified, called “soil aggregation” and “soil porosity”. Through the “soil aggregation” process, it was found that clay is essential for the formation of aggregates with diameter of up to 2.0 mm, while soil organic carbon influences the formation of macroaggregates. The “soil aggregation” was higher in the area under NTS-g, and lower in the areas under NTS-f and CTS. The practice of fallow in the off-season in a no-tillage system proved to be harmful to soil structuring, especially in relation to soil aggregation. In the area under CTS there was greater “soil porosity” in the 0–0.1 m layer, but this effect is temporary, due to the large amount of microaggregates generated in this system, which over time obstructs soil pores and causes lower porosity than that determined under the no-tillage system.
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    Estimation of soil losses in the area of environmental protection of the Uberaba river
    (2022-09-22) Siqueira, Hygor Evangelista; Pereira, Gener Tadeu [UNESP]; Pissarra, Teresa Cristina Tarlé [UNESP]; Filho, Marcilio Vieira Martins [UNESP]; Campos, Carlos Alberto Araújo; Grupo de Pesquisa Política de Uso do Solo; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro
    Conservation Units are National Environment Policy instruments that determined the creation of areas for protection and guarantee of ecosystem balance in the Brazilian territory. The Uberaba River Environmental Protection Area (APA) is a water conservation unit in the city of Uberaba-MG. It is characterized as a sustainable use conservation unit, and some highly impacting activities have been occurring in this area, leading to erosion, water eutrophication, and changes in water quality and quantity. The aims of this study were to evaluate soil losses and to diagnose areas of natural potential for erosion (PNE) using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), the Geographic Information System (GIS), and remote sensing products. Adjusted PNE was low (<100 t ha-1 year-1) in 38.72% of the APA and moderate (100-200 t ha-1 year-1) in 31.29% of the area. High (200-600 t ha-1 year-1), very high (600-1000 t ha-1 year-1), and extremely high indexes (> 1000 t ha-1 year-1) were observed in 29.99% of the APA. Estimates of soil loss due to water erosion below 5 t ha-1 year-1 represented 43.81% of the APA. Estimated losses between 5 and 10 t ha-1 year-1 occur in 12.22% of the area; from 10 to 20 t ha-1 year-1, 21.82% of the area; between 20 and 50 t ha-1 year-1,17.89% of the area; from 50 to 100 t ha-1 year-1, 3.92% of the area; and losses over 100 t ha-1 year-1 involved 0.34% of the APA. The use of geotechnology, remote sensing products, geographic information systems, and the Universal Soil Loss Equation enabled spatial identification of sites of greater and lesser potential erosion risk, which enabling the estimation of soil loss rates throughout the Uberaba River Environmental Protection Area.
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    The economic viability of the use of urea with urease inhibitor in cotton grown in the Cerrado of Central Brazil
    (2023-07-01) Leite, Rafael da Costa; Leal, Aguinaldo José Freitas; Piati, Gabriel Luiz; Vendruscolo, Eduardo Pradi; Barreto, Rafael Ferreira [UNESP]; Lima, Sebastião Ferreira de; Zoz, Tiago; Kaneko, Flávio Hiroshi; Zanella, Mayara Santana; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS); Câmpus Iturama; Cidade Universitária; Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The cotton crop has a high demand for nitrogen fertilizers. However, an adequate supply of this nutrient may be difficult in regions with a tropical climate, requiring the introduction of technologies that provide better nitrogen availability to plants, such as urease inhibitors. The study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of using urease inhibitor in the treatment of urea granules for fertilizing cotton grown in the summer in a tropical region. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications in a 3 × 5 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of urea treated with 0.045% and 0.060% urease inhibitor (N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide - NBPT) and urea without urease inhibitor applied as topdressing, in doses of 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha−1, divided into two applications, at 30 and 50 days after emergence. Fiber yield, effective operational cost, total operational cost, total cost, gross revenue, gross margin, net operational margin, net margin, profitability index, equilibrium price, and equilibrium yield were determined. In an agricultural year with rainfall close to the application of N in topdressing, the use of N at a dose of 120 kg ha−1 in the form of urea, associated with the urease inhibitor, promoted greater profitability of the cotton crop, as well as the use of urea regardless of the use of urease inhibitor. The urease inhibitor did not interfere with cotton fiber yield.
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    Beneficial Role of Silicon on Regulating C, N, and P Stoichiometric Homeostasis and the Growth of Sugarcane Seedlings under Aluminum Toxicity
    (2022-12-01) da Silveira Sousa Junior, Gilmar [UNESP]; Hurtado, Alexander Calero [UNESP]; de Souza Junior, Jonas Pereira [UNESP]; de Mello Prado, Renato [UNESP]; de Cássia Piccolo, Marisa; Dos Santos, Durvalina Maria Mathias [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP); University of Sancti Spiritus “Jose Marti Perez” (UNISS)
    This study investigates the protective role of silicon (Si) on growth performance, nutrient homeostasis, and C:N:P stoichiometric of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) seedlings under aluminum (Al) stress in hydroponic conditions. Experiments were conducted as a factorial scheme (2 × 2) in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), with four replications, for each sugarcane cultivar (“CTC9002” and “CTC9003”). They were grown in pots filled with normal Clark nutrient (pH = 5.8 without Al) and acidic Clark nutrient solution (pH = 4.5 with 15 mg L−1 of Al, as aluminum sulfate [Al2 (SO4)3·18H2O]) in the absence or presence of Si (2 mM, as potassium silicate (K2SiO3). Sugarcane seedlings of both cultivars grown under Al stress alone significantly decreased root, culm, and leaf dry biomass, and this adverse effect was reversed by Si supplementation. Added Si also modified nutrient homeostasis of both sugarcane cultivars, and these effects varied depending on plant organs. Si decreased the concentration of C, N, and P and correspondingly increased C:N, C:P, and N:P stoichiometric. In addition, both sugarcane cultivars had a positive response to Si supplementation, but cultivar “CTC9003” is more recommended under added Si to ameliorate the detrimental effects caused by Al toxicity. The findings of this study indicate that Si promoted attenuation of Al-stressed sugarcane seedlings by regulating nutrient and homeostasis stoichiometric, leading to improve dry biomass production.
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    Sorption of Heavy Metals in Tropical Soils
    (Crc Press-taylor & Francis Group, 2012-01-01) Mellis, Estevao Vicari; Casagrande, Jose Carlos; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Pessoa da Cruz, Mara Cristina [UNESP]; Camargo, Otavio Antonio de; Selim, H. M.; Ctr Solos & Recursos Ambientais; Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
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    Sugarcane Straw Contribution to Mitigating the Impacts of Cultivation on the Physical Quality of Oxisol
    (2022-01-01) Perroni, Rafael Deberaldini [UNESP]; Fernandes, Mariele Monique Honorato [UNESP]; Coelho, Anderson Prates [UNESP]; Pinheiro, Daniel Pereira [UNESP]; Fernandes, Carolina [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Sugarcane areas show a reduction in soil physical quality. However, few studies demonstrate the effect of sugarcane straw maintenance on soil physical quality along the crop cycle. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the soil physical quality in areas cultivated with sugarcane where straw was kept on soil, after the first and fourth harvests, with that of an area under native forest. Two areas cultivated with sugarcane, representative of the beginning and end of the production cycle, were evaluated in a clayey Oxisol. One area was evaluated after the first mechanical harvest (C1), while the other was evaluated after the fourth harvest (C4). These areas were compared to an area of native forest (NF). The data were subjected to multivariate principal component analysis. Agricultural areas cultivated with sugarcane showed reduction in soil physical quality compared to NF, presenting higher soil penetration resistance (SPR), soil bulk density (Sd) and microporosity (Mic). Sd was 13.7% higher in the C1 area, while in the C4 area such increase was only 5.1% compared to NF. The negative impact of sugarcane cultivation on soil physical quality is reduced after four harvests in areas with mechanical harvesting and where straw was kept on the soil, especially in the 0.00–0.20 m layer.
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    Exogenous foliar ascorbic acid applications enhance salt-stress tolerance in peanut plants throughout an increase in the activity of major antioxidant enzymes
    (2022-11-01) Alves, Rita de Cássia [UNESP]; Oliveira, Kevein Ruas [UNESP]; Lúcio, José Clebson Barbosa [UNESP]; Silva, Jeferson dos Santos [UNESP]; Carrega, Willians César [UNESP]; Queiroz, Samira Furtado [UNESP]; Gratão, Priscila Lupino [UNESP]; Crop Production Center; Institute of Plant Protection; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Although ascorbic acid (AsA) is an antioxidant that can protect plants from oxidative damages, little is known about physiological and biochemical responses of exogenous AsA-regulated antioxidant systems to stressful-conditions in peanut plants. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of AsA-foliar applications on antioxidant defense responses in peanut plants irrigated with saline water. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with four treatments formed by combining and not AsA under salt-stressful conditions (control, 50 mM AsA, 50 mM NaCl and 50 mM NaCl + 50 mM AsA). AsA application was performed twice a week spraying plant shoot. After a period of 40 days post germination, plants were collected and evaluated for the following parameters: total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents; dry biomass; malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR). AsA increased total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, reduced Na+concentration, and oxidative damages by modifying antioxidant defense systems. Therefore, the exogenous application of AsA is an efficient strategy to withstand or avoid stress imposed by salt, which can be attributed to increased SOD, CAT, APX, GSH-Px and GR activities in peanut plants, and enhance salt tolerance.
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    Surface Application of Hydrated Lime in Different Crop Systems
    (2022-01-01) Borges, Wander Luis Barbosa; Hipólito, Jorge Luiz; Juliano, Pedro Henrique Gatto [UNESP]; de Souza, Isabela Malaquias Dalto [UNESP]; de Freitas, Rogério Soares; Andreotti, Marcelo [UNESP]; Centro Avançado de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Seringueira e Sistemas Agroflorestais; Mudas e Matrizes (DSMM); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Centro Avançado de Pesquisa de Seringueira e Sistemas Agroflorestais
    To address the problems of acidity in the surface and subsurface layers and improve soil chemical fertility, three methodology of surface application of hydrated lime (HL) (4Ca(OH)2Mg(OH)2) (ensure that calcium (Ca)+2 occupied 70%, 60%, and 50% of cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the 0.0–0.2 m layer) were evaluated in a Typic Hapludalf in conventional pasture system (CPS), no-till system (NTS), and agropastoral system (APS) in Brazil. The results support the following conclusions: (a) the application of HL corrects surface and subsurface acidity and improve the soil chemical fertility: increasing pH and magnesium (Mg)2+ content in the CPS, NTS, and APS in the 0.0–0.2 m and 0.2–0.4 m layers; increasing base saturation (BS) and Mg+2/CEC in the CPS, NTS, and APS in the 0.0–0.2 m layer; increasing Ca+2 content, CEC, and Ca+2/CEC in the NTS and APS in the 0.0–0.2 m layer; reducing total acidity in the CPS, NTS, and APS in the 0.0–0.2 m layer and in the NTS and APS in the 0.2–0.4 m layer; reducing total acidity and increasing Mg+2/CEC in the NTS and APS in the 0.2–0.4 m layer.
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    Effects of rumen undegradable protein sources on nitrous oxide, methane and ammonia emission from the manure of feedlot-finished cattle
    (2022-12-01) Coelho, Larissa de Melo [UNESP]; Brito, Liziane de Figueiredo [UNESP]; Messana, Juliana Duarte [UNESP]; Cardoso, Abmael da Silva [UNESP]; Carvalho, Geovany Macêdo [UNESP]; Torres, Rodrigo de Nazaré Santos [UNESP]; Carlos, Roberta Souto [UNESP]; Malheiros, Euclides Braga [UNESP]; Cruz, Mara Cristina Pessôa da [UNESP]; Berchielli, Telma Teresinha [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The effects of sources of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) in diets on methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from the manure of feedlot-finished cattle were evaluated. We hypothesized that the use of different RUP sources in diets would reduce N loss via urine and contribute to reduced N2O, CH4 and NH3 emissions to the environment. Nellore cattle received different diets (18 animals/treatment), including soybean meal (SM, RDP source), by-pass soybean meal (BSM, RUP source) and corn gluten meal (CGM, RUP source). The protein source did not affect the N and C concentration in urine, C concentration in feces, and N balance (P > 0.05). The RUP sources resulted in a higher N2O emission than the RDP source (P = 0.030), while BSM resulted in a higher N2O emission than CGM (P = 0.038) (SM = 633, BSM = 2521, and CGM = 1153 g ha−2 N–N2O); however, there were no differences in CH4 and NH3 emission (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the use of RUP in diets did not affect N excretion of beef cattle or CH4 and NH3 emission from manure, but increased N2O emission from the manure.
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    Silicon and boron on cauliflower induce attractiveness and mortality in Plutella xylostella
    (Wiley-Blackwell, 2022-09-20) Cardoso, Camila Pires [UNESP]; Nunes, Gilmar da Silva [UNESP]; Silva, Jose Lucas Farias da [UNESP]; Prado, Renato de Mello [UNESP]; Guedes, Victor Hugo de Farias [UNESP]; Bortoli, Sergio Antonio de [UNESP]; Souza Junior, Jonas Pereira de [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Background: Boron (B) and silicon (Si) are fundamental for brassica nutrition, and in some cases, they have potential as an insecticide. Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), one of the most economically important agricultural pests, is difficult to control due to the resistance to insecticides and the absence of alternative control methods. Results: Cauliflower leaves sprayed with Si and B showed a higher concentration of the beneficial element and micronutrient, respectively. When evaluating the firmness of the cauliflower leaves, it was found that the plants with leaf sprayings of Si and B did not differ statistically from each other. However, they showed an increase in firmness, in relation to the plants of the control treatment. Leaf spraying of Si and B on cauliflower did not influence the number of eggs/female. The attractiveness index showed that both Si and B applications stimulated the presence of second instar larvae, being more stimulating in relation to the control treatment. However, the use of Si and B in isolation showed a positive result, since it caused high mortality in diamondback moth larvae compared to the control treatment. Conclusion: The application of both foliar fertilizers positively affects the attractiveness index of the larvae, being attractive; however, both Si and B caused high mortality (similar to 80%). The results showed that Si and B have the potential to control P. xylostella and serve as a basis for alternative pest management in brassica crops. (C) 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.
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    Mid-Infrared Spectrum Analysis for Mapping Attributes of Cohesive Soils in Brazil
    (2022-01-01) Porto de Oliveira, Romário; Barbosa, Ronny Sobreira; Marques Júnior, José [UNESP]; Jacques Agra Bezerra da Silva, Yuri; Barrón, Vidal; Silva Dantas, Jussara; Maria Do Amaral Resende, José; Veniciús Santana Gualberto, Adriano; Professora Cinobelina Elvas Campus; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); University of Córdoba; Academic Unit of Agrarian Sciences; Center for Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a promising technique for advances in soil studies. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the mid-infrared range to estimate the sand, silt, clay, pH, H+ Al, sum of bases, organic matter contents, phosphorus, and remaining phosphorus of Argissolo Amarelo distrocoeso típico (Typic Hapludult) in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Two areas with different characteristics were selected for sampling: Area 1 and Area 2. A square sampling grid with 121 points was used for each area. Samples were collected from the 0.0–0.2 m soil layer. The spectra were recorded in the mid-infrared range (2500–25000 nm; 4000–400 cm−1) at 8 cm−1 resolution. The data of Area 1 were used for chemometric model calibrations by Partial Least Squares Regression analysis. The data of Area 2 were used for the geostatistical modeling. All attributes presented, in general, positive calibration parameters, with adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj) for sand (0.76), silt (0.51), clay (0.77), pH (0.51), H+ Al (0.45), sum of bases (0.75), organic matter contents (0.71) and remaining phosphorus (0.6), and residual prediction deviation equal to or higher than 1.4, except for phosphorus. The lowest prediction errors were found for sand (17%) and silt (19%) contents, pH (15%), and remaining phosphorus (8%). The distribution of spatial attributes–measured and predicted–presented positive correlation, confirming the potential of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as an alternative for prediction of soil attributes.
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    Do fallow in the off-season and crop succession promote differences in soil aggregation in no-tillage systems?
    (2022-04-15) Fernandes, Mariele Monique Honorato [UNESP]; Coelho, Anderson Prates [UNESP]; Silva, Matheus Flavio da [UNESP]; Fernandes, Carolina [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The no-tillage (NT) system is an agricultural practice that stands out the most within conservation agriculture. Conservation agriculture is based on three principles: soil tillage that is limited to the sowing row, crop rotation, and soil surface cover throughout the year (>30%). Despite these principles, the maintenance of soil cover throughout the year and crop rotation are commonly neglected, which can promote changes in soil aggregation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fallow in the off-season, and two crop successions (grass/grass and grass/legume), on soil aggregation in NT systems. The study was conducted in five fields with different land uses for more than 10 years in southeastern Brazil. Three land uses under NT, all sown with maize within the season, were used, yielding three groups: NT with fallow in the off-season (NT-f), NT with legumes (brown hemp) in the off-season (NT-l), and NT with maize in the off-season (NT-g). For comparison, we considered forest land (F) as a conservation reference for soil aggregation and land being used under conventional tillage (CT) as a low-conservation system. The soil variable that contributed the most to the separation of land use was the mineral-associated organic carbon content. The absence of soil surface cover throughout the year in an NT system is as harmful to soil aggregation as a CT system. Moreover, succession promotes differences in soil aggregation, with grass-grass succession (NT-g) leading to higher particulate organic carbon content and aggregate stability index in some soil layers compared to the NT-l. Here, we demonstrate that conservation agriculture practices, such as NT, require a system-centered approach to improve soil conditions. We also found that fallow in the off-season promotes an NT system with low soil conservation.
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    Do Alterations in Soil Physical Attributes Resulting from Chiseling Persist after Sugarcane Planting?
    (2022-01-01) de Souza, Francisco Carlos Almeida [UNESP]; Fernandes, Mariele Monique Honorato [UNESP]; Coelho, Anderson Prates [UNESP]; Pinheiro, Daniel Pereira [UNESP]; Perecin, Dilermando [UNESP]; Fernandes, Carolina [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Soil tillage is a high-cost operation in the replanting of sugarcane fields. Thus, measures to reduce this cost are desirable, provided that they promote good physical conditions for sugarcane development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chiseling in total area and in the planting row on the physical attributes of Oxisol and Ultisol after soil tillage and after sugarcane planting. The experimental design was in large and uniform plots, with two treatments and ten replicates. The Oxisol and Ultisol had clay contents of 590 and 168 g kg−1 in the 0.00–0.40 cm layer. Treatments consisted of soil tillage with chiseling in the planting row and with chiseling in total area. After soil chiseling and after planting, undisturbed soil samples were collected in each experimental plot, in three layers (0.00–0.10; 0.10–0.20 and 0.20–0.40 m) and at two sampling sites (row and interrow). In both soils, chiseling in total area was efficient to reduce soil density and increase macroporosity in sugarcane interrows, compared to chiseling in the row. The values of the physical attributes of the soils evaluated, in rows and interrows, were similar in the areas with chiseling in total area and row chiseling after sugarcane planting. Changes in Oxisol and Ultisol structure due to chiseling did not persist after sugarcane planting. The soil under row chiseling system has physical quality similar to that of the soil under total area chiseling system, regardless of texture.
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    What Are the Impacts of Long-Term Vinasse Application on Clayey and Sandy Soils?
    (2022-04-01) Cardoso, Edmilson N’dami Lopes [UNESP]; Coelho, Anderson Prates [UNESP]; Fernandes, Carolina [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Long-term vinasse application effects evaluation on the chemical and physical attributes of soils with different textures is fundamental to support waste application recommendation. The aim was to evaluate whether long-term vinasse application changes the chemical and physical attributes of clayey and sandy soils cultivated with sugarcane. The experiment was carried out in two areas in the southeast region of Brazil in soils with sandy (80 g kg−1 clay) and clayey (490 g kg−1 clay) textures. In each soil, there were two sugarcane management conditions, one with vinasse application for more than 10 years and the other without vinasse application. Ten disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected in each area in the 0.00–0.10 m, 0.10–0.20 m and 0.20–0.30 m layers to evaluate soil chemical and physical attributes. Due to the dependence structure of the variables, multivariate factor analysis was applied. Vinasse application increased macronutrients content, on average, by 23% in the clayey soil and 80% in the sandy soil. In addition, long-term vinasse application increased the microporosity of the sandy soil by 22%, enabling greater availability of water for sugarcane. Long-term vinasse application is a sustainable management for sugarcane areas, regardless of soil texture, as it increases soil fertility by increasing organic carbon and macronutrient contents and does not generate soil acidification potential.
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    Multivariate split moving windows and magnetic susceptibility for locating soil boundaries of São Paulo, Brazil
    (2021-09-01) Silva Júnior, João Fernandes da; Siqueira, Diego Silva [UNESP]; Teixeira, Daniel De Bortoli; Panosso, Alan Rodrigo [UNESP]; Marques Júnior, José [UNESP]; Pereira, Gener Tadeu [UNESP]; Research Group GEOP — Geotechnologies and Pedometrics; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); University of Marília (UNIMAR)
    Multivariate split moving window (MSMW) is a tool to automate soil mapping and to assess uncertainty in soil boundaries. In this paper, we propose a new approach to locate soil boundaries. We investigated the potential of (i) MSMW associated with Mahalanobis D2 and (ii) split moving window (SMW) associated with magnetic susceptibility (MS) as tools for validation of soil boundaries. A transect was lined in Guatapará city (Sao Paulo state, Brazil), and 172 soil samples were collected from 86 locations, at a depth of 0–25 and 25–50 cm, for physical and chemical analyses. Additionally, categorical properties – geology, land use, and altitude – were assessed at the same sampling points. All the data were organized into four groups of properties (G1, G2, G3, and G4) and analyzed by principal component analysis, MSMW analysis – to delineate map units using D2 –, and SMW analysis using MS. MSMW and SMW were compared regarding their potential to locate soil boundaries along the transect. The MS peaks in SMW presented a correlation with peaks of t-statistics and D2 in MSMW: (r = 0.56; p < 0.01 – r = 0.69; p < 0.01) and (r = 0.55; p < 0.01 – r = 0.64; p < 0.01) for both depth intervals (0–25 cm and 25–50 cm), respectively. MSMW was more sensitive than SMW in the detection of soil boundaries in areas with lower clay content. Compared to conventional soil surveys, MSMW considerably improved the prediction of boundaries in mapping units. We concluded that the proposed method is a promising strategy for soil surveyors and can be used to assist pedological cartography.
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    Estimation of clay content by magnetic susceptibility in tropical soils using linear and nonlinear models
    (2021-12-01) Filla, Vinicius Augusto [UNESP]; Coelho, Anderson Prates [UNESP]; Ferroni, Adrien Dorvalino [UNESP]; Bahia, Angélica Santos Rabelo de Souza [UNESP]; Marques Júnior, José [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The application of pedotransfer functions for soil attribute estimation has economic and environmental advantages. However, the appropriate choice of models is essential to obtain high accuracy. The aim was of this study was to evaluate the magnetic susceptibility (χ) potential to estimate soil clay content and to compare the estimation accuracy using linear (simple linear regression, SLR) and nonlinear models (power model, PM, and artificial neural networks, ANNs). An area of approximately 870 ha, cultivated with sugarcane in southeastern Brazil, was delimited and georeferenced for the collection of soil samples. Soil samples were collected every 2.5 ha (0.00–0.25 m), resulting in 372 points. A transect was directed in the area, and another 132 soil samples were collected at regular intervals of 30 m in the same layer. The samples were sent to the laboratory, and χ values were obtained for all points. Pedotransfer functions were developed to estimate the soil clay content using the χ values. The models were calibrated with the 372 points collected from the regular mesh of the 870-ha area, using the 132 points of the transect for validation. Regardless of the type of model applied to the pedotransfer functions, χ proved highly accurate for estimating soil clay content. However, the ANNs and PM increased the estimation accuracy, attenuated the error, and increased the estimation precision for soil samples with clay content below 200 g kg−1.
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    Sugarcane yield and quality using soil magnetic susceptibility
    (2022-01-01) Catelan, Michelle Gimenes; Marques Júnior, José [UNESP]; Siqueira, Diego Silva [UNESP]; Gomes, Romário Pimenta [UNESP]; Bahia, Angélica Santos Rabelo de Souza [UNESP]; Usina São Martinho; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The concept of production environments, which is widely used to classify the yield potential of soils, and magnetic susceptibility (MS), is emerging as an important tool for mapping ultra-detailed areas. Given this background, this paper aims to evaluate the use of MS as a tool for the identification of areas with different potential the enhancing of sugarcane yield and quality, and the allocation of varieties. An area of 445 ha was sampled at 1 point every 7 ha, and 14 points were determined for stratified sampling following the top of the landscape. Particle size and MS of samples at depths of 0.0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m were analyzed. The data on yield and quality of raw material were obtained from a nine crop season database and biometry performed in the 2018/19 crop season. The multivariate analysis of historical results showed the formation of three groups with different yield and quality potential, with a difference of up to 17.28 mg of cane per hectare between the group with the highest and lowest potential, based on soil MS. An analysis of the performance of the varieties involved showed that MS is effective in identifying areas with different potential for sugarcane yield and quality, differentiating by up to 34.5 % the performance of the same variety in different MS classes and by up to 38.5 % the performance of different varieties in similar MS classes. Thus, MS is an effective tool for identifying areas with different potential for sugarcane yield and quality, and can be used for allocating varieties in the field.
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    Foliar sources of boron and manganese in soybean and zinc plants in corn plants complexed with polyols in nutritional status and in production
    (2020-01-01) Neto, André Mendes Coutinho [UNESP]; da Silva, Gilmara Pereira; Coutinho, Edson Luiz Mendes [UNESP]; Prado, Renato de Mello [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); University Campus of Alta Floresta
    Alternative sources of micronutrients have appeared on the market from B, Mn, and Zn complexes with polyols without scientific evidence on their agronomic effects compared to conventional sources, which is a concern when high fertilizer efficiency is sought Leaf. This study’s objective was to evaluate the levels of Mn, B, and Zn leaf and grain and grain yield as a function of foliar application of doses and sources of Mn and B in soybean and Zn maize. They studied different sources of Mn (manganese sulphate, Mn-EDTA chelate, and Mn complex with lignosulfonate and with polyol), B (boric acid, B complex with polyol) in soybean and Zn (zinc sulfate, Zn-EDTA and Zn complex with polyol). Foliar application of sources and doses of Mn and B in the soybean and Zn crops in the maize crop does not influence plant nutrition and grain production. Foliar application of soluble sources, chelates, and alternative sources of Mn, B in the soybean, and Zn crops in maize crops present similar agronomic efficiencies in plant nutrition and grain production.
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    Least limiting water range in Oxisols under different levels of machine traffic
    (2017-01-01) De Vares Rossetti, Karina [UNESP]; Centurion, José Frederico [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This work aimed, to evaluate the structural behavior of Oxisols based on the least limiting water range (LLWR) and establish relations with corn crop. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. Soil samples collected at the layer of 0-0.20 m depth in a Haplustox (LVd) and an Eutrustox (LVef) were used. The compaction treatments consisted of T0= no additional compaction; T1 and T2= two and four passes with a 4 t tractor, respectively; T3 and T4 = two and four passes with a 10 t tractor, respectively. The range of LLWR variation in the LVd was the lowest one and varied from 0.01 to 0.04 m3 m-3, whereas in the LVef varied from 0.03 to 0.13 m3 m-3 for the critical soil penetration resistance (PRc) of 2 MPa. It was observed that critical bulk density (BDc) values were 1.76 and 1.40 Mg m-3 in the LVd and the LVef, respectively. The highest frequency of bulk density (BC ≥ BDc) occurred from the T1 to T4 (LVd) and from the T2 to T4, however, a reduction in corn yield was not observed. The determination of the LLWR was efficient and complementary for identifying more favorable or more impeditive conditions to compaction in the LVef for the corn crop development in relation to the LVd.