Artigos - Psicologia - FC

URI Permanente para esta coleção


Submissões Recentes

Agora exibindo 1 - 20 de 511
  • Item
    Conceptions on disability in public and private Higher Education institutions
    (2023-01-01) Leite, Lúcia Pereira [UNESP]; Cabral, Leonardo Santos Amâncio; de Lacerd, Cristina Broglia Feitosa; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar)
    This article aims to study and analyze the conceptions of disability presented by 1763 university students. The Conceptions on Disability Intercultural Scale was applied to students at three universities in the State of São Paulo, two of which are public – federal and state – and one is private. Results were exposed to statistical processing, to compare the data obtained among the students in these different contexts and to analyze the relationships between the choice of positioning in certain variables, such as the area of expertise and/or academic training and age group. The results allow for a systematization of information in order to understand social, political and educational behaviors and cultures, which may indicate ways of overcoming discriminatory attitudes based on disability, and situate the university as an environment where the disability issue can be the subject of critical debates among future professionals
  • Item
    Attitudes towards disability in higher education
    (2022-01-01) Gràcia, Marta; Leite, Lúcia Pereira [UNESP]; Cañete-Massé, Cristina; University of Barcelona; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    In this article, we present data concerning the attitudes towards disability of students in higher education (HE) at a Spanish university. This research is part of a wider project designed to understand these attitudes at other Spanish universities and Brazilian and Portuguese universities. The total sample was composed of 609 students (mean age: 24.41; standard deviation, SD: 9.84), including undergraduates (85.7%) and postgraduates (14.3%) from different faculties at the University of Barcelona. Seventy-seven percent of the sample were women, and 6.1% had some disability. The first part of the instrument used collects sociodemographic information. The second part contains 43 statements grouped in three blocks: 17 relating to the biological model of disability, 15 to the social model, and 11 to the metaphysical perspective. The results showed the predominance of agreement with the social and biological conceptions of disability. Moreover, significant differences were found among the students’ attitudes related to their year of study, age, faculty, and absence of disability. The results obtained represent a first step regarding the need to give a voice to students with a disability in the processes required for their social inclusion.
  • Item
    Basic concepts of behavioral pharmacology
    (2021-09-23) Gonçãlves, Fábio Leyser [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    This chapter intends to present some concepts, methods, and contributions of Behavioral Pharmacology to the understanding of the phenomenon of substance dependence. The chapter begins with a brief description of the area and history of behavioral pharmacology. Next, it presents basic concepts of pharmacology and neurobiological processes involved in the action of psychotropic substances, seeking to help the reader to develop a basic repertoire that helps him/her to face the challenges of an interdisciplinary area. Among the main concepts approached are absorption, distribution, and excretion of substances by the body. On the sequence, it seeks to clarify the basic principles of the neurotransmission chemical process, the basis for the functioning of the entire nervous system. Some of the main methods of behavioral pharmacology are explored, with emphasis on those related to substance dependence, such as self-administration procedures, second-order schedules of reinforcement and procedures related to conditioned reinforcement, concurrent schedules choice and behavioral economics. The chapter also discusses a proposal for understanding the relationship between drugs and behavior, including organism modifications related to the effects of psychotropic substances. Finally, some information is briefly presented on three drugs commonly related to the dependence phenomenon, especially in Brazil: alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine.
  • Item
    Conceptions on disability of Spanish university students
    (Univ Politecnica Salesiana Ecuador-salesian Polytecnic Univ, 2023-01-01) Leite, Lucia Pereira [UNESP]; Martins, Sandra [UNESP]; Morina, Anabel; Morgado, Beatriz; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Univ Seville
    In the context of education and, specifically, in the university stage, the presence of people with disabilities in Higher Education is today a reality, both in Spain and in other international contexts. Currently, there is a global movement that claims the right to access, permanence and success of non-traditional students, including those with disabilities. This study aims to present and analyze the conceptions of 676 university students (undergraduate and postgraduate) from different areas of knowledge of the University of Seville (Spain) on disability. A quantitative methodology has been used with the application of the Intercultural Scale of Disability Concepts (EICD). The results showed a preponderance of the social conception of disability, followed by the biological/medical aspects. Differences were observed in relation to the variables analyzed, younger university students and those who were doing postgraduate studies indicated the prevalence of statements linked to the social model of disability. No significant differences were found between participants with and without disabilities. Among the conclusions, we can highlight the relevance of understanding disability as a social phenomenon for the offer of inclusive psychosocial and psychoeducational practices. This decision then reveals that accepting the review of social paradigms to resignify concepts in the social conception of disability is a possible for the recognition of the differences that constitute the human.
  • Item
    Behavioral community psychology in the Amazon rainforest: Suggestions for when behavior analysts meet alterity
    (Springer, 2022-09-29) Silva, Felipe Bulzico da [UNESP]; Leugi, Guilherme Bergo; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Fundacao Nacl Indio FUNAI; Fed Univ Triangulo Mineiro UFTM; Univ Fed Triangulo Mineiro; Univ South Australia UniSA
    The present paper aimed to discuss and interpret methodological issues and contributions arising mainly from professional field work conducted by a behavior analyst working as a behavioral community psychologist in the Amazon rainforest, in northern Brazil. We looked at such a professional's day-to-day circumstances and challenges within a semi-isolated Indigenous community, and systematized impressions and implications for practice with diverse verbal communities and social groups. We believe that looking at experience with those specific social contexts enables us to critically examine behavior analysis community practice more generally. We provided examples of said practices and examined their explicit and more subtle consequences. In light of that, we discussed features of a collaborative methodological stance while working in the field that we wish to foster and encourage. We conclude by pointing out advantages of more in-depth and intensive relational methods for behavior analysts in community practice.
  • Item
    Speech Accuracy and Reading in Children with Cochlear Implants
    (2022-01-01) Lucchesi, Fernando Del Mando [UNESP]; Almeida-Verdu, Ana Claudia M. [UNESP]; Bolsoni-Silva, Alessandra Turini [UNESP]; Buffa, Maria José Monteiro Benjamin; das Graças de Souza, Deisy; Universidade Paulista – UNIP; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais – HRAC; Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar)
    Research on relations between hearing through cochlear implants and accurate speech is still scarce. The present study used the stimulus equivalence paradigm to investigate the effects of systematically teaching reading skills on speech accuracy in four children with cochlear implants. We used 17 sets of stimuli, each with three dictated (A) and printed (C) words, corresponding pictures (B), and dictated and printed syllables from each word (As and Cs). After teaching stimulus–stimulus relations (AB, AC, and AsCs) and stimulus–response relations (i.e., constructed responses under the control of printed words [CE]), we measured emergent relations, including picture naming (BD) and word reading (CD). Word reading and picture naming were systematically evaluated across stimulus sets (units) according to a single-subject experimental design. All four children presented improvements in reading and speech accuracy in the picture-naming tasks. These results suggest that exposing children with cochlear implants to equivalence-based instructional programs can improve speech accuracy in picture naming in this population through the transfer of stimulus control from printed words to pictures.
  • Item
    Effects of Promove – Saúde da Mulher on anxiety, depression, social skills, and satisfaction: A single-subject design
    (2022-12-01) Victuri, Alexandre Aguiar [UNESP]; Bolsoni-Silva, Alessandra Turini [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Terapia Analítico-Comportamental (TAC) (in English, behavioral-analytic therapy, behavior therapy, or clinical behavior analysis) is a possible intervention for cases of anxiety and depression, but it still has much to advance in terms of efficacy and clinical utility evidence. This article aims to describe the effects of a semi-structured intervention in the model of TAC regarding anxiety and depression, behavior, complaints, and satisfaction indicators. Participants included three women with children, marital relationships, and work, aged between 34 and 41 with complaints compatible with anxiety and depression disorders. The intervention used Promove – Saúde da Mulher (PSM) (in English, Promote Women’s Health), which included 17 topics, most of them related to social skills. Instruments included the GAD-7 for anxiety, PHQ-9 for depression, IHS-2 Del Prette for social skills, a Complaints Checklist for monitoring clinical demands, and an Evaluation of the Therapeutic Process to describe clients’ satisfaction rates. The results from the standardized instruments were statistically analyzed via the JT method. All three participants showed reliable improvements in anxiety and/or depression, improvement in most complaints, and satisfaction with the intervention and its outcomes. Acquisition of social skills occurred in two cases. One participant dropped out and another one relapsed at follow-up. The efficacy criteria were used to evaluate the internal validity of the present study. The study collected the first evidences of outcome and satisfaction for PSM, thus enabling future investigations on the efficacy and clinical utility of this intervention program.
  • Item
    Attitudes towards disability in higher education
    (Univ Barcelona, Fac Psicologia, 2022-01-01) Gracia, Marta; Leite, Lucia Pereira [UNESP]; Canete-Masse, Cristina; Univ Barcelona; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    In this article, we present data concerning the attitudes towards disability of students in higher education (HE) at a Spanish university. This research is part of a wider project designed to understand these attitudes at other Spanish universities and Brazilian and Portuguese universities. The total sample was composed of 609 students (mean age: 24.41; standard deviation, SD: 9.84), including undergraduates (85.7%) and postgraduates (14.3%) from different faculties at the University of Barcelona. Seventy-seven percent of the sample were women, and 6.1% had some disability. The first part of the instrument used collects sociodemographic information. The second part contains 43 statements grouped in three blocks: 17 relating to the biological model of disability, 15 to the social model, and 11 to the metaphysical perspective. The results showed the predominance of agreement with the social and biological conceptions of disability. Moreover, significant differences were found among the students' attitudes related to their year of study, age, faculty, and absence of disability. The results obtained represent a first step regarding the need to give a voice to students with a disability in the processes required for their social inclusion.
  • Item
    Vivência da sexualidade a partir do relato de pessoas com deficiência intelectual
    (2016-01-01) Maia, Ana Cláudia Bortolozzi [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This qualitative descriptive study investigated the experience of sexuality and sexual health from reports of 12 people, men and women, with intellectual disabilities who participated in an interview. The participants showed difficulties in verbalizing concepts about sexuality, but were capable of expressing it without any aloofness or weirdness. They report the occurrence of dating, usually without sex and guarded by adults; when reported, the intercourse occurs in places of little privacy and often withou t condoms. There are those who covet marriage and reproduction, but also those who postpone or avoid maternity / paternity, revealing choices about their reproductive lives. Due to superficial information provided by an ineffective sex education and taking on affective and sexual lives, they are found in vulnerable conditions. We conclude that the sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities is quite similar to that of other people when referring to the expression of erotic desire and exposure to social standards; this population should receive sex education that contributes to the full exercise of their sexuality and to the respect of their sexual rights.
  • Item
    Problemas de comportamento, em ambiente familiar em escolares e pré-escolares diferenciados pelo sexo
    (2015-01-01) Bolsoni-Silva, Alessandra Turini [UNESP]; Levatti, Giovanna Eleutério [UNESP]; Guidugli, Prscila Meireles [UNESP]; Marim, Vanessa Cristina Machado [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The literature about behavioral problems in childhood points out the importance of the study of its prevalence to prevention and treatment, however, studies of the influence of gender and education are scarce. This study aimed to describe and compare, as assessed by caregivers, the occurrence of behavioral problems considering gender and education of the child, and evaluate the influence between behavior problems and academic performance. Caregivers of 90 preschool children and of 96 school children participated. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was applied. The results showed a high prevalence of behavioral problems, with prominence of boys. 56.86% of them with externalizing and total problems. The comparison of categories that both versions of the CBCL (preschool and school) have in common shows that emotional problems and anxiety problems differentiated the groups. At school age more children had problems. Lower scores of academic performance were noted at the group with behavior problems.
  • Item
    Comparing individual delay discounting of gains and losses
    (2015-06-01) Gonçalves, Fábio Leyser [UNESP]; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    Choices between immediate and delayed consequences have been studied using mathematical models. Several studies have investigated this delay discounting phenomenon using appetitive stimuli, but few have studied it with aversive stimuli, although the models that describe the appetitive scenario have been suggested to also describe the aversive scenario. The aim of this study was to compare the delay discounting of gains and losses. Participants included 36 volunteers (undergraduate students; age range: 18-28 years) of both sexes. Informed consent was provided by participants. Data collection consisted of a series of hypothetical choices between immediate and delayed monetary amounts that would be earned (gain situation) and paid (loss situation): fixed delayed value of R$1,000 and variable immediate value that could range from R$1 — R$1,000. For each of 8 delays, an indifference point was calculated. The analysis of the mathematical models revealed that the models found in the literature failed to describe the data obtained for losses. An alternative model is proposed, in which the aversive value of the delay is modulated by 2 parameters that are added to a hyperbolic with exponent model. Such a model provides a better description of the present data.
  • Item
    Analysis of complaints of municipal directed network submitted to special education
    (2015-01-01) Guerra, Bárbara Trevizan [UNESP]; Rovaris, Jéssica Aline [UNESP]; Mariano, Marília [UNESP]; Guidugli, Priscila Meireles [UNESP]; Rosanti, Sofia [UNESP]; Bolsoni-Silva, Alessandra Turini [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The Atendimento Educacional Especializado (AEE), in partnership with public schools, aims complementary disabled student learning in the comum school, in turn against. This study aimed to describe and analyze the contents of the referrals of teachers in public schools to the AEE, categorizing them according to sex, age, disability diagnosis, behavior problems externalizing and internalizing, disabilities learning, and others. Was contacted an institution that offers the AEE, in an interior city of São Paulo, to describe and analyze 92 referrals of children of kindergarten. The results show that most of the services performed by the AEE intended for children that do not have disabilities. In addition, 69 % of the complaints relate to externalizing behavior problems. From these data we discuss about educational practices of teachers, and alternative care for patients, whether or not students with disabilities, who have difficulties in the learning process
  • Item
    Educational Practices and Child Behaviors: Mothers’ and Teachers’ Evaluation
    (2021-01-01) Bolsoni-Silva, Alessandra Turini [UNESP]; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    – The objective of this study was to describe and compare mothers’ and teachers’ reports concerning their educational social skills and negative practices and children’s behavioral problems and social skills. The mothers and teachers of 81 children participated in this study. The children were assigned to four groups depending on whether they presented problems exclusively at home, school, in both, or none of these contexts. Valid instruments measured educational practices and child behavior. The results show that: (a) mothers and teachers agreed that children with problems in both contexts presented the highest level of impairment; (b) the mothers more frequently reported skills such as affection, adopted negative practices, and identified problem behaviors; (c) the teachers reported more skills such as limit setting. The conclusion is that teachers’ and mothers’ practices differ, and such information can guide preventive programs and interventions.
  • Item
    Narcissism and helplessness: Some considerations about interpersonal relationships today
    (2021-01-01) Barbosa, Caroline Garpelli [UNESP]; Campos, Erico Bruno Viana [UNESP]; Neme, Carmen Maria Bueno [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This essay aims to discuss the phenomenon of narcissism today, starting from the hypothesis that interpersonal relationships are configured by helplessness in its traumatic dimension, and not as an opening to alterity. This would be so because, in the current social scenario, human relationships tend to lack help and alteritarian support for subjects’ transformation and development, posing three disruptive threats to them: lonely emptiness, invasion of the other and impotence. In the absence of supportive relationships, the other appears as a threat against which narcissism emerges as a possibility of defense, prevailing in the form of regenerating narcissism.
  • Item
    Intercultural scale of conceptions of disability: Constructions and psychometric studies
    (2021-01-01) Leite, Lúcia Pereira [UNESP]; Cardoso, Hugo Ferrari [UNESP]; de OLIVEIRA, Taize [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The same instrument may be suitable for different realities, but in order to actually assess conceptions linked to a particular cultural context, it is necessary to understand the phenomenon under the lens of this scenario. The objective of this paper was to present preliminary results of validation and reliability of the Escala Intercultural de Concepções de Deficiência – EICD (Intercultural Scale of Conceptions of Disability) for the Brazilian reality. EICD is an instrument developed by a team from different countries (Brazil, Spain and Portugal) and aimed at assessing concepts of disability. Qualitative validation (based on content) was carried out, by means of national and international judges, and by verification of main components carried out by exploratory factor analysis of the data collected with a Brazilian sample group. The final version included translation and back-translation into four different languages: Spanish (Cuba), Catalan (Barcelona), Castilian (Seville) and Portuguese (Portugal). Regarding the factorial study for the Brazilian reality, the EICD was composed of 43 items, distributed in three dimensions (Biological Conception, Social Conception and Metaphysical (Religious) Conception). Future studies will be necessary for the psychometric improvement of the instrument, both in the national and international context.
  • Item
    What is concrete psychology? Contributions by Lev S. Vigotski
    (2021-01-01) Martins, Lígia Márcia [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This paper aims to corroborate the answer to what is concrete psychology, having as reference Vygotsky's propositions. To this end, presents introductory elements of the critique made by this author to the traditional psychology in the essay “The historical meaning of the crisis in psychology. A methodological investigation”, as well as its defense of a concrete, scientific psychology. Then, using the historical and dialectical materialism of Vigotski's psychology, this paper presents a systematization of the concrete psychology's fundamental characteristics, namely: the materialist approach; the realization that the basis of all social relations are the relations of production; the call to fight against the objective and subjective conditions that alienate work and workers and, finally, the adoption of the dialectical materialist method. In conclusion, these elements are illustrated in how Vigotski discusses the need to formulate a unique psychology; in the ontological and gnosiological focus given to the development of the human psyche as well as through the concept of “life experience”, considered by the author as an indissoluble unit between person and social situation of development.
  • Item
    Validity of the interview script of Educational Practices for teachers (RE-HSE-PR)
    (2019-01-01) Bolsoni-Silva, Alessandra Turini [UNESP]; Barbosa Oliveira, José Egídio; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    In the school context, social skills in teachers and children, as well as child behavioral problems, contribute to the social development and learning of the students, however, there is no instrument that evaluates these variables in an integrated way. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the validation of the Interview Script of Educational Practices for Teachers (RE-HSE-Pr) instrument. The RE-HSE-Pr was developed in a similar way to other pre-existing instruments in which parents are the information source. After validation, it had 9 guide-questions organized on three information axes: Communication, Affection and Establishment of Limits. Participants were teachers of 283 pre-school and school age children, who answered both the RE-HSE-Pr and Teacher's Report Form (TRF). Evaluations of the construct and discriminant validity and reliability were performed, according to technical procedures. Two factors with adequate alpha (positive total; negative total) were identified, and discriminant analyses discriminated cases from non-cases; boys from girls and pre-school children from school children. Psychometric indicators were satisfactory.
  • Item
    Comparing the development of identity and oddity relations using olfactory stimuli in rats
    (2018-01-01) Alves, Mirela Louise [UNESP]; Gonçalves, Fábio Leyser [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Identity and oddity matching are relations derived from conditional discrimination processes that can be studied through matching-to-sample procedures. Generalized matching happens when the subject’s response is controlled by these relations even when novel stimuli are presented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the moment when the identity and oddity relations are generalized, considering how many pairs of stimuli are needed for demonstrating generalization. Six male Wistar rats were trained on an oddity matching-to-sample procedure, and four were trained on an identity matching-to-sample. The olfactory stimuli were cups filled with scented sand in which the rats should dig to obtain a sugar pellet according to either the identity or oddity contingency. The experiment was divided into three phases, each having the training of one pair of stimuli and, after meeting the training criteria, a generalization test with novel stimuli. For this experiment, generalization is considered if the subject matched consistently according to the trained relation in at least 91,67% of the trials during the last testing session of each phase. The experiment ended when generalization was demonstrated in any of the three phases. The applied training showed to be more effective for oddity than for identity relations since the oddity group learned the trained relations faster and five of the rats were able to demonstrate generalization according to the defined testing criteria. Also, within the oddity group, there were rats that demonstrated generalization with less training than three pairs of stimuli, indicating that training with a large number of stimuli is not necessary to show generalized oddity relations. For the identity group, the number of training sessions was higher and only one rat met the testing criteria. Another problem addressed in this study is the effect of the contingency used during testing sessions over the subject’s performance. Tests under extinction decreased the choice response rate after a few trials. Tests under an undifferentiated reinforcement contingency solved this problem, however, they don’t eliminate the possibility of discrimination between training and testing sessions, what also could impair the evaluation of generalization. The results indicate the need for further investigations on better ways to evaluate generalization and on the difference in the acquisition of the oddity and identity relations.
  • Item
    Therapist-client interaction and session theme in social anxiety disorder
    (2018-01-01) Garcia, Vagner Angelo [UNESP]; Bolsoni-Silva, Alessandra Turini [UNESP]; Galeazzi Nobile, Glaucia Fernanda [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Research on therapeutic interaction has been increasing in recent years, but few are about the population with social anxiety disorder. This study aimed to analyze the correlations between variables of the therapeutic process: therapist and client behaviors and the themes discussed in the sessions. Participated in the research two clients diagnosed with SAD and a therapist. The sessions were analyzed using a categorization system behavior, and the correlation analysis by means of Spearman's rho test were performed. The results indicate that the therapist presented a therapy in active listening, being empathetic to provide information and recommendations. Sought information on certain topics with empathy, collecting data and asking for consideration. Another highlight is the correlation between Relations and Goals/Concordance, which configure as key processes to achieve the therapeutic goal.
  • Item
    Predictors of social skills and behavioral problems in children
    (2018-01-01) Bolsoni-Silva, Alessandra Turini [UNESP]; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    Social skills and behavioral problems are influenced by multiple variables. Objective was to compare groups of children distinguished by social skill deficits and behavioral problems, according to sociodemographic variables, educational practices, family environment resources, and indicators of maternal depression, verifying the predictive value of those variables. Participants were 151 mothers of children, and data were compared and treated by binary logistic regression. On the regression models, the following influences were observed: a) in case of social skills related to the positive and negative educational practices - behavioral problems and low income; b) in case of behavioral problems related to the negative practices - child social skills, mother's schooling, mother's marital state and child's gender. In comparisons, environmental resources and maternal depression differentiated the groups. Simultaneous evaluation of the variables emphasizes intersections and differences of the constructs.