ItemAttempts for increasing Astyanax altiparanae spawning rates and percentage of responsive oocytes(2023-07-01) Ariki, Daniel Guimarães Figueiredo [UNESP]; Roza de Abreu, Mariana [UNESP]; de Jesus Silva, Laíza Maria [UNESP]; Sato, Rafael Tomoda [UNESP]; Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)In this study, we aimed to propose changes in the protocol of cultured Astyanax altiparanae hypophysation to increase the maximum ovulation rate of 60% registered previously. To that two consecutive experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, three carp pituitary homogenate (CPH) doses (3, 6, and 9 mg/kg) were administered in a single injection, while in the second experiment, the 6 mg/kg CPH dose was tested either in single or double injections. In the first experiment, a single injection of 3 mg/kg CPH did not induce final oocyte maturation or spawning, while a dose of 6 mg/kg CPH resulted in an increase in the plasma level of prostaglandin (PGF2α) at ovulation. The single higher dose of 9 mg/kg CPH did not improve reproductive performance and even though anticipated the resumption of meiosis it was detrimental to the spawning rate. In the second experiment, the dose of 6 mg/kg CPH fractionated into two injections led to a higher spawning rate, spawning volume per female body mass, frequency of post-ovulatory complexes, and PGF2α concentration at ovulation compared to the single injection. The most effective treatment remained the 6 mg/kg of CPH fractionated into two injections, but still providing very low proportion of ovulated females (∼40 %). Overall, this study indicates that the spawning protocols for this species need to be improved to induce ovulation in a larger number of females and be more potent in those females that respond positively. ItemUsing stable isotopes (C and N) to determine plankton contribution in tambaqui juvenile growth in earthen ponds(2023-01-01) da Costa, Jesaías Ismael [UNESP]; Carneiro, Dalton José [UNESP]; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Jomori, Rosângela Kiyoko; Martins, Maria Inez [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Av. General Rodrigo Octávio; Ituverava Educational FoundationTambaqui production is commonly performed in fertilized ponds, considering that this species feeds from zooplankton throughout its life. This study evaluated plankton’s participation in the production of tambaqui juveniles in ponds using different stocking densities. A total of 72,000 fish (1.9 ± 0.01 cm and 0.4 ± 0.1 g) were stocked in 12 ponds (600 m2), in the densities of 5, 10, or 15 fish.m−2, with four replicates in a completely randomized design. Fish were fed twice a day to the point of satiety, with a commercial diet containing 36% of crude protein for 56 days. Zootechnical performance parameters were evaluated, and limnological variables were monitored. With the aid of stable isotopes, both the diet and plankton participation were assessed in the produced biomass of fish. Turbidity and Secchi were the only limnological variables that varied due to stocking density, while final biomass and final average density were the only zootechnical indexes that presented differences. Plankton contributed to the formation of muscles throughout the production period, with an average participation of 22.75 ± 12.82%. ItemDigestible protein levels and metabolic responses in juvenile piapara (Megaleporinus obtusidens)(2023-04-12) De Almeida, Viviane Do Nascimento Santana [UNESP]; Carli, Gabriela Castellani [UNESP]; Sátiro, Thaise Mota [UNESP]; Do Nascimento, Thiago Matias Torres [UNESP]; Takahashi, Leonardo Susumu [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary digestible protein (DP) on growth and physiological indicators in piapara. Three hundred piapara juveniles (24.0 ± 1.3 g) were distributed in 20 tanks of 130 L (15 fish/tank) with continuous aeration and water. Five isoenergetic diets (14.0 MJ·kg-1) were formulated to contain increasing levels of DP (21, 24, 27, 30 and 33%). After 77 days of feeding, increasing levels of digestible protein influenced final weight, specific growth rate and weight gain linearly (p < 0.05). Water ammonia concentration and liver alanine aminotransferase activity also showed a linear effect with an increasing DP level (p < 0.05), but no relationship was found between DP level and serum ammonia (p > 0.05). There was no linear and quadratic effect for hepatosomatic index, liver glycogen and liver lipid content (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the muscle lipid content decreased linearly with the increase in the DP level (p < 0.05), while the mesenteric fat index showed a linear and quadratic effect (p < 0.05) with an increasing curve until the peak of 25.77% DP. The activity of the hepatic malic enzyme also followed a quadratic pattern (p < 0.05) with a maximum point of 27.08% of DP. This contrasts with the hepatic enzyme glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which increased linearly with the increase in the DP level (p < 0.05). The results showed better productive performance for fish fed with the highest levels of DP, though greater excretion of ammonia in the water was also shown. Diets below 27% DP resulted in greater energy reserve, amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis. Therefore, the inclusion of 28 to 30% DP in the diet will be ideal for growth and physiological responses in piapara. ItemCombination of extractive techniques followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis to monitor ent-agathic acid in fish treated with Copaifera duckei Dwyer(2023-05-30) da Silva, Jonas Joaquim Mangabeira; Campanharo, Sarah Chagas; da Silva, Agnaldo Fernando Baldo; de Jesus, Raphael Barbetta [UNESP]; Figueredo, Tais Alexandra Mário; Pilarski, Fabiana [UNESP]; Heleno, Vladimir Constantino Gomes; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); University de Franca (UNIFRAN)Plants are used as therapeutic alternatives in Veterinary Medicine, including therapies for food-producing animals. However, these medicinal resources can sometimes contain dangerous substances, and when used in animals that supply food, they stand out from the point of view of food safety. The diterpene ent-agathic acid, a component of Copaifera duckei oleoresin, is an example of substances already described with toxic activity in mammals. Thus, this study aimed to propose combining two extractive techniques followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry analysis to monitor residues of ent-agathic acid in Piaractus mesopotamicus fillet treated in an immersion bath with Copaifera duckei oleoresin. An optimized combination of solid–liquid extraction (using acidified acetonitrile) and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (using acidified water and chloroform as dispersive and extracting solvent, respectively) was performed to recover the target analyte, added to the development of HPLC-MS/MS method with adequate validation parameters to quantify the ent-agathic acid present in the fish fillet. In vivo tests of residual persistence of ent-agathic acid in fishes treated with C. duckei oleoresin were performed, indicating the non-detection of the target diterpene (< 6.1 µg/mL). The combined extractive procedure followed by quantitative analysis in the in vivo test of residual persistence of the target analyte in fish indicated the absence of ent-agathic acid in all samples. Thus, the data found might contribute to understanding the use of oleoresins from C. duckei as an alternative to traditional veterinary products. ItemInteraction between reduced pH and multiple stressors affects the physiology of the fiddler crab Leptuca thayeri (Rathbun, 1900) (Decapoda: Brachyura: Ocypodidae)(2022-12-01) De Andrade, Isabel M. [UNESP]; Ferreira, Julia R. Do C. [UNESP]; Ramaglia, Andressa C. [UNESP]; Augusto, Alessandra [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Increasing ocean acidification combined with other impacts may cause changes in homeostatic mechanisms of intertidal invertebrates. Stressors do not act in isolation, and experimental work is needed to assess their synergistic potential. We evaluated the effect of exposure to multiple stressors on the survival, osmoregulation, metabolism, Q10, excretion, hepatosomatic index, and energy substrate oxidation on of the fiddler crab Leptuca thayeri (Rathbun, 1900). Crabs were exposed to two pH values (7.0, 6.3) combined with temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C) and these pH values combined with salinities (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 psu) during acute exposure. All individuals died at 40 °C. Crabs osmoregulated, suggesting that the factors evaluated did not affect salt absorption or secretion. Individuals were weak hyperosmorregulators at lower salinities in the pH 7 control, but they became strong hyperosmoregulators at acidified pH 6.3. Alterations in oxygen consumption and hepatosomatic index were observed in individuals exposed to the acidified pH combined with temperatures or salinities, compared to those kept in the control pH. Q10 was elevated under an acidified pH, with crabs using proteins and lipids as energy substrates. The interaction between reduced pH and temperature or salinity thus affected physiological mechanisms related to the energetic metabolism, but elevated temperatures are more limiting because they affected survival. These physiological effects of acute exposure offer clues about extreme climatic events, which have a short duration but can affect the related energy demands. ItemPerspectives on aquaculture's contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals for improved human and planetary health(2023-04-01) Troell, Max; Costa-Pierce, Barry; Stead, Selina; Cottrell, Richard S.; Brugere, Cecile; Farmery, Anna K.; Little, David C.; Strand, Åsa; Pullin, Roger; Soto, Doris; Beveridge, Malcolm; Salie, Khalid; Dresdner, Jorge; Moraes-Valenti, Patricia [UNESP]; Blanchard, Julia; James, Philip; Yossa, Rodrigue; Allison, Edward; Devaney, Christopher; Barg, Uwe; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; Stockholm University; University of New England; University of Leeds; University of Tasmania; Soulfish Research and Consultancy; University of Wollongong; University of Stirling; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute; The Irish Sea Centre Ltd; INCAR; Universidad de Concepcion; Crieff; Stellenbosch University; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Fisheries and Aquaculture Research; Jalan Batu Maung; University of Washington; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)The diverse aquaculture sector makes important contributions toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)/Agenda 2030, and can increasingly do so in the future. Its important role for food security, nutrition, livelihoods, economies, and cultures is not clearly visible in the Agenda 21 declaration. This may partly reflect the state of development of policies for aquaculture compared with its terrestrial counterpart, agriculture, and possibly also because aquaculture production has historically originated from a few key hotspot regions/countries. This review highlights the need for better integration of aquaculture in global food system dialogues. Unpacking aquaculture's diverse functions and generation of values at multiple spatiotemporal scales enables better understanding of aquaculture's present and future potential contribution to the SDGs. Aquaculture is a unique sector that encompasses all aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, brackish/estuarine, and marine) and is also tightly interconnected with terrestrial ecosystems through, for example, feed resources and other dependencies. Understanding environmental, social, and economic characteristics of the multifaceted nature of aquaculture provides for more context-specific solutions for addressing both opportunities and challenges for its future development. This review includes a rapid literature survey based on how aquaculture links to the specific SDG indicators. A conceptual framework is developed for communicating the importance of context specificity related to SDG outcomes from different types of aquaculture. The uniqueness of aquaculture's contributions compared with other food production systems are discussed, including understanding of species/systems diversity, the role of emerging aquaculture, and its interconnectedness with supporting systems. A selection of case studies is presented to illustrate: (1) the diversity of the aquaculture sector and what role this diversity can play for contributions to the SDGs, (2) examples of methodologies for identification of aquaculture's contribution to the SDGs, and (3) trade-offs between farming systems’ contribution to meeting the SDGs. It becomes clear that decision-making around resource allocation and trade-offs between aquaculture and other aquatic resource users needs review of a wide range of established and emergent systems. The review ends by highlighting knowledge gaps and pathways for transformation that will allow further strengthening of aquaculture's role for contributing to the SDGs. This includes identification and building on already existing monitoring that can enable capturing SDG-relevant aquaculture statistics at a national level and discussion of how a cohesive and comprehensive aquaculture strategy, framed to meet the SDGs, may help countries to prioritize actions for improving well-being. ItemLow microbiome diversity in threatened amphibians from two biodiversity hotspots(2022-12-01) Greenspan, Sasha E.; Peloso, Pedro; Fuentes-González, Jesualdo A.; Bletz, Molly; Lyra, Mariana L. [UNESP]; Machado, Ibere F.; Martins, Renato A.; Medina, Daniel; Moura-Campos, Diego; Neely, Wesley J.; Preuss, Jackson; Sturaro, Marcelo J.; Vaz, Renata I.; Navas, Carlos A.; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Tozetti, Alexandro M.; Vences, Miguel; Woodhams, Douglas C.; Haddad, Célio F. B. [UNESP]; Pienaar, Jason; Becker, C. Guilherme; The University of Alabama; Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA); Instituto Boitatá de Etnobiologia e Conservação da Fauna; Florida International University; University of Massachusetts Boston; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar); SENACYT - City of Knowledge; The Pennsylvania State University; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP); The Australian National University; Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina; Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos; Braunschweig University of TechnologyMicrobial diversity positively influences community resilience of the host microbiome. However, extinction risk factors such as habitat specialization, narrow environmental tolerances, and exposure to anthropogenic disturbance may homogenize host-associated microbial communities critical for stress responses including disease defense. In a dataset containing 43 threatened and 90 non-threatened amphibian species across two biodiversity hotspots (Brazil’s Atlantic Forest and Madagascar), we found that threatened host species carried lower skin bacterial diversity, after accounting for key environmental and host factors. The consistency of our findings across continents suggests the broad scale at which low bacteriome diversity may compromise pathogen defenses in species already burdened with the threat of extinction. ItemZooplankton community dynamics in response to water trophic state in integrated multitrophic aquaculture(2023-04-12) Ibrahim, Adriana Nabil Abdel Fattah [UNESP]; Castilho-Noll, Maria Stela Maioli [UNESP]; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) is an alternative means to optimize feed usage in aquaculture which combines species of different trophic levels. The addition of substrate to IMTA has also been used to promote a lower release of phosphorus, thus minimizing eutrophication and impacts of effluents. In these aquaculture systems, the zooplankton community is important because it acts as a link in trophic chains. This study aimed to verify the dynamics and the structure of the zooplankton community in IMTA (tilapia-prawn), in response to trophic conditions in earthen ponds with different substrates. The object of the study was 12 earthen ponds organized in three treatments: no substrate (control), geotextile substrate, and bamboo substrate. Zooplankton samples were taken biweekly through a water bilge pump. Rotifers and microcrustaceans were identified and counted to determine changes in community diversity during the experiment. Eutrophication was determined through phosphorus and chlorophyll water concentrations. There were no differences in zooplankton communities among treatments, even though increases in levels of eutrophication of the system heavily influenced this community, by altering its diversity and abundance. Small organisms were the most representative ones under polyculture eutrophic conditions. ItemEimeria maxima infection impacts the protein utilisation of broiler chicks from 14 to 28 days of age(2023-01-01) Freitas, L. F.V. [UNESP]; Dorigam, J. C.P.; Reis, M. P. [UNESP]; Horna, F. [UNESP]; Fernandes, J. B.K. [UNESP]; Sakomura, N. K. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Evonik Operations GmbHIn floor-raised broilers, coccidiosis is responsible for reducing the use of nutrients, mainly by impairing intestinal tissue function and activating the immune system. Understanding and quantifying how balanced dietary protein (BP) is used when birds are challenged will allow nutritionists to make decisions regarding challenged flocks. This study aimed to determine the effects of Eimeria maxima on broiler performance and body composition, and to calculate changes in the maintenance and efficiency of protein utilisation (Ep). A total of 2 400 male 14-day-old Cobb500 broiler chickens were randomly allotted to ten groups with six replications of 40 birds each, with a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Five levels of BP in reference to digestible lysine (3.6, 7.2, 10.8, 14.4, and 18.0 g/kg) were fed to unchallenged (NCH) and challenged (CH) broilers with 7 × 103 E. maxima sporulated oocysts from 14 to 28 days of age. Performance and body deposition were measured using a comparative slaughter technique to compare BP maintenance requirements and Ep. ANOVA followed by a posthoc test was performed to compare the effects of BP levels, challenge, and their interactions. A monomolecular model describing the responses of NCH and CH broilers to BP intake, maintenance, and maximum protein deposition was compared. There were significant interactions between body weight gain and digestible lysine intake among the factors studied. Infection had a negative impact on all variables analysed, proving the efficacy of the challenge. The maintenance did not differ between the CH and NCH groups. Increased levels of dietary BP did not recover the maximum protein deposition in CH broilers. Eimeria maxima significantly reduced Ep by a factor of 0.09 times on Ep compared to the control group. The Eimeria maxima challenge was responsible to modify the use of BP altering the body composition and impairing broilers performance. ItemEffects of Supplementation of Zinc, Manganese, or Copper and Different Phytase Levels in Serum and Bone Acid and Alkaline Phosphatases of Broiler Chicks(2023-01-01) Santos, L. F.J. [UNESP]; Gonçalves, Adriano Marques [UNESP]; Neira, L. M. [UNESP]; Nakagi, V. S.; Macari, M. [UNESP]; Laurentiz, A. C. [UNESP]; Pizauro, J. M. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Faculdade de Tecnologia de Ribeirão Preto (FATEC); University of Araraquara (Uniara); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)The knowledge of biological trace minerals and phytase requirements for modern broiler genotypes is not established and the pressure to reduce their usage in animal feeding due to environmental issues is increasing. Here, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) of the tibia and serum of broilers fed with diets containing various levels of phytase and reduced levels of zinc, manganese, and copper was evaluated. The experiment was performed using 1,200 male Cobb broilers raised according to standard commercial husbandry techniques. Data were analyzed as a 4×3 factorial arrangement with four concentrations of zinc (0.34, 0.49, 0.64, and 0.79 ppm), manganese (0.18, 0.43, 0.68, and 0.93 ppm), or copper (0.09, 0.12, 0.15, and 0.18 ppm) and three concentrations of phytase (0, 500, and 1,000 FTU/kg) for age periods of 1-21 and 36-42 days. While the dietary supplementation with copper did not induce a significant effect in bone tissue biochemical markers, serum TRAP activity of 42-day old broilers increased with higher copper levels. Increasing dietary zinc levels linearly increased ALP activity in tibia growth, suggesting that zinc is essential for longitudinal bone growth. Phytase significantly promoted the increase of TRAP and ALP activities, suggesting that manganese increased growth plate activity, accelerated calcification, and remodeled the newly formed tissue into trabecular bone. Although not every enzymatic activity was affected by the treatments, the phytase use, along with trace minerals, improved the animal response to the rapid growth required nowadays and provided the nutrients for adequate bone metabolism. ItemEffect of low water temperature on the stress, innate immune, and antioxidant responses of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, a sub-tropical fish(2023-01-01) Pereira de Faria, Camila de Fátima [UNESP]; Piedade, Allan Emilio [UNESP]; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The sustainability of aquaculture is subject to environmental changes, such as changes in temperature, which affect the physiological homeostasis of fish. Thermal shock (natural or anthropogenic) is a stress condition that results in a sequence of physiological responses and even mortality. Considering the impact of sudden reductions in temperature on the biological systems and that this occurrence is common in regions where pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is farmed, we evaluated the stress, immune, and antioxidant responses of the species exposed to temperature drop. Two groups of fish were exposed to 28 °C or 16 °C for 24 h, and then fish were kept at 28 °C to recover and be sampled: before the temperature drop (baseline); after 24 h of cold exposure; and 3, 8, and 24 h after the return to 28 °C (recovery). The exposure of pacu to 16 °C did not alter the stress biomarkers after 24 h, but it activated the innate immune system (leukocyte respiratory activity, hemolytic activity of the complement system, and serum lysozyme concentration). It also promoted oxidative stress without altering most of the antioxidant system indicators, except for an initial reduction of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity after exposure to 16 °C and a late activation, besides the late activation of glutathione transferase (GST), probably as a compensatory process to reduce tissue damage. Pacu was sensitive to temperature changes, but it was able to activate immune and compensatory responses to mitigate oxidative stress. The results will help producers in the management of pacu during periods of thermal changes, such as in autumn and winter. ItemAnalysis in Proceratophrys boiei genome illuminates the satellite DNA content in a frog from the Brazilian Atlantic forest(2023-01-01) João Da Silva, Marcelo [UNESP]; Gazoni, Thiago [UNESP]; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista [UNESP]; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Satellite DNAs (satDNAs) are one of the most abundant elements in genomes. Characterized as tandemly organized sequences that can be amplified into multiple copies, mainly in heterochromatic regions. The frog P. boiei (2n = 22, ZZ♂/ZW♀) is found in the Brazilian Atlantic forest and has an atypical pattern of heterochromatin distribution when compared to other anuran amphibians, with large pericentromeric blocks on all chromosomes. In addition, females of Proceratophrys boiei have a metacentric sex chromosome W showing heterochromatin in all chromosomal extension. In this work, we performed high-throughput genomic, bioinformatic, and cytogenetic analyses to characterize the satellite DNA content (satellitome) in P. boiei, mainly due to high amount of C-positive heterochromatin and the highly heterochromatic W sex chromosome. After all the analyses, it is remarkable that the satellitome of P. boiei is composed of a high number of satDNA families (226), making P. boiei the frog species with the highest number of satellites described so far. Consistent with the observation of large centromeric C-positive heterochromatin blocks, the genome of P. boiei is enriched with high copy number of repetitive DNAs, with total satDNA abundance comprising 16.87% of the genome. We successfully mapped via Fluorescence in situ hybridization the two most abundant repeats in the genome, PboSat01-176 and PboSat02-192, highlighting the presence of certain satDNAs sequences in strategic chromosomal regions (e.g., centromere and pericentromeric region), which leads to their participation in crucial processes for genomic organization and maintenance. Our study reveals a great diversity of satellite repeats that are driving genomic organization in this frog species. The characterization and approaches regarding satDNAs in this species of frog allowed the confirmation of some insights from satellite biology and a possible relationship with the evolution of sex chromosomes, especially in anuran amphibians, including P. boiei, for which data were not available. ItemSharing is living: The role of habitat heterogeneity in the coexistence of closely related species(2023-03-01) Sanches, Fábio H. C. [UNESP]; De Grande, Fernando R. [UNESP]; Costa, Tânia M. [UNESP]; Barreto, Rodrigo E. [UNESP]; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)In biologically diverse ecosystems, an essential process to support competing species to coexist is ecological differentiation. Habitat heterogeneity is, hence, important in establishing species abundance and richness, favoring the coexistence of species due to habitat partition. In this context, shading and species thermal tolerance can be good factors to elucidate the role of habitat heterogeneity in the habitat partition among closely related species. Herein, we study shading effects in microhabitat selection, behavior, and physiological limitation on two species of fiddler crabs (Leptuca leptodactyla and Leptuca uruguayensis). Indeed, shading conditions influenced fiddler crabs species proportion over time, with L. leptodactyla more associated with nonshaded/warmer areas while the L. uruguayensis to shaded/cooler ones. They also adjusted their behavior differently from each other to deal with thermal stress. Finally, we have demonstrated that these effects are related to species' physiological limitations. We conclude that biologically diverse ecosystems, such as intertidal regions from estuaries (e.g., mudflats and mangroves), support the coexistence between closely related species by reducing competition due to habitat partition. ItemThe environmental licensing of hydroelectrics and the interface with migratory fish and aquaculture in Brazil(2022-05-20) Vidal, Mayara Venturini [UNESP]; Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)In this review, we present a background on the Brazilian Federal Legislation on the environmental licensing of hydroelectric plants focusing on the procedure of the repair of environmental damage caused by dams to migratory fish. To that end, the Brazilian electrical matrix was first addressed, thus highlighting the significant contribution of the energy produced by hydroelectric projects. To better contextualize the characteristics of the legislation, separate sections concerning illustrative reports of the effects of dams on migratory fish and the current panorama of aquaculture in Brazil and in the world were included. In this review, we also present a discussion on the specific legislation concerning a mitigation measure, the “fish restocking programs,” which have the potential to promote fishing and aquaculture, but still lack a scientific basis on their effectiveness and correct application. An assessment of this historical process in Brazil indicates that different mitigation measures imposed to obtain operating licenses by hydroelectric plants vary among different hydroelectric projects and that this heterogeneity in the conditions imposed may have effects (of unknown proportions) on local fish communities. Considering the absence of a specific device foreseen in the law that requires the owner or concessionaire of dams in watercourses to provide for fish restocking programs or specific ichthyofauna conservation programs, the issue seems to depend on the discretion of the licensing agency to demand that the hydroelectric plant operators carry out the reintroduction of fish in their reservoirs. This review concludes that there are political and scientific issues to be debated and explored in order to improve public policies on this topic of extreme relevance for society. ItemModelling FLOCponics systems: Towards improved water and nitrogen use efficiency in biofloc-based fish culture(2023-05-01) Pinho, Sara M. [UNESP]; de Lima, Jéssica P. [UNESP]; Tarigan, Nurhayati Br; David, Luiz H. [UNESP]; Portella, Maria Célia [UNESP]; Keesman, Karel J.; Wageningen University; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Leibniz-Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops (IGZ)FLOCponics is an integrated agri-aquaculture system, in which water and nutrients from a biofloc-based fish culture are reused to fertilise soilless plants. This paper is the first modelling study that focuses on decoupled FLOCponics with the aim of investigating and discussing whether the integration of biofloc-based culture with soilless plant production increases the efficiency of food production in terms of resource use and by how much. For this purpose, a biofloc-based monoculture system with a total volume of the fish tanks of 15.2 m3, and a FLOCponics system with similar biofloc system and a planting area of 33.6 m2 was modelled. The simulation models of these reference systems were run for a period of five years, and water, nitrogen and total suspended solid balances in both systems were compared. In addition to this, various planting areas of the FLOCponics system were changed step-wise until the most suitable size was found. The results indicate that FLOCponics is 10% and 27% more efficient in using water and nitrogen, respectively, than the stand-alone biofloc system. Also, the integrated system results in a reduction of 10% in the amount of solids discharged. Optimisation of the planting area with respect to key model outputs led to an improved FLOCponics system, where the planting area of the system is expanded by a factor of 3.2. The findings presented in this study support the hypothesis that integrating a biofloc system with hydroponics makes biofloc-based fish culture more efficient in terms of resource use and wastes avoidance. ItemMorphological analysis of the digestive tract of Hypophthalmus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1840)(2023-01-01) Pozzer, Roger Franzoni [UNESP]; Kuhn Faccioli, Claudemir; Chedid, Renata Alari [UNESP]; Hideo Mori, Ricardo [UNESP]; Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo [UNESP]; Franceschini Vicentini, Irene Bastos [UNESP]; Vicentini, Carlos Alberto [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU)The mapará, Hypophthalmus marginatus, is a rheophilic and planktophagous catfish and it is one of the main fishing resources in the Amazon region. To understand its nutritional characteristics, this work described the morphology and histochemistry of the digestive tract of H. marginatus. The oropharyngeal cavity has abundant, long and thin gill rakers, responsible for retaining plankton, while the short and muscular oesophagus promotes the transport of these items to the stomach and prevents water ingestion. The stratified oesophageal epithelium has goblet cells with mucins predominantly neutral that could facilitate the food passage the food passage. The U-shaped siphonal stomach shows a columnar epithelium with neutral mucins to protect against autodigestion. The cardiac and fundic regions have gastric glands, while the pyloric region has a thick muscular layer with a sphincter. The coiled intestine with intestinal quotient of 2.14 ± 0.5 shows long longitudinal folds in the anterior region, decreasing in height in the aboral direction, and highlighting its function in digestion and nutrient absorption. Goblet cells are abundant in posterior intestine and rectum, and rectum shows epithelial cells with mucins in the apical cytoplasm, for protection and defecation. Intraepithelial lymphocytes also are abundant in posterior intestine and rectum, and it acts in immunological defence. ItemNeogene–Quaternary tectonic, eustatic and climatic events shaped the evolution of a South American treefrog(2023-05-01) Abreu-Jardim, Tatianne Piza Ferrari; de Lima, Natácia Evangelista; Jardim, Lucas; Maciel, Natan Medeiros; de Magalhães, Rafael Félix; Colli, Guarino Rinaldi; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista [UNESP]; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG); Universidade Federal de Jataí; Universidade Federal de São João del Rei; Universidade de Brasília (UnB); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Aim: Understanding how past geological and climatic events could have generated intraspecific genetic variation at different temporal and spatial scales in the Neotropics requires a model encompassing distinct ecoregions. Because Anura species have their evolutionary history affected by climate and environmental changing, it is a suitable model to investigate the signatures of Neotropical historical events in species populations. Here we used a treefrog species to test hypotheses associated with tectonic, eustatic and climatic events along with isolation-by-environment and isolation-by-distance spatial patterns in genetic diversity. Taxon: Scinax squalirostris (Lutz, 1925), Anura: Hylidae. Location: Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, Chaco, Uruguayan Savanna and Pampas ecoregions in South America. Methods: We sequenced nuclear and mitochondrial data from 219 individuals of S. squalirostris sampled at 26 locations in South America. We performed statistical phylogeographic analyses and reconstruction of spatiotemporal dispersal dynamics. Ecological niche modelling was conducted to predict spatial changes in environmental suitability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene and present day. Results: We recovered a significant phylogeographic break roughly dated back to the Miocene (~7.6 Ma), coinciding with the retraction of marine incursions in the Paraná basin. Most dispersal events occurred in cooler periods of the Pliocene–Pleistocene transition. The spatial pattern in genetic diversity was not correlated with geographical distance or environmental variables. Main Conclusions: Scinax squalirostris had a quasi-stable distribution through time. Neogene–Quaternary tectonic, eustatic and climatic events drove the demographic history and dispersal dynamics of species, with a phylogeographical break dated to the Miocene coinciding with retractions of marine incursions in the Paraná basin. Lineage dispersal spread from the southern Atlantic Forest and retrieved gene flow signals congruent with the cold periods of the Pliocene and Pleistocene. ItemThe diet of ctenomyids(2021-02-17) Lopes, Carla Martins [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)What do ctenomyids eat? Do they have any food preference? Do we know the diet composition of all ctenomyid species? What are the methods available to study the diet of species? In this chapter, we answer all these questions, focusing on what we know so far about the diet of ctenomyids. We do not discuss the physiological aspects of the diet. This was addressed in Chap. 11. ItemHost immune responses to enzootic and invasive pathogen lineages vary in magnitude, timing, and efficacy(2023-05-01) McDonald, Coby A.; Becker, C. Guilherme; Lambertini, Carolina; Toledo, L. Felipe; Haddad, Célio F. B. [UNESP]; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Cornell University; The Pennsylvania State University; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); The University of Texas at AustinInfectious diseases of wildlife continue to pose a threat to biodiversity worldwide, yet pathogens are far from uniform in virulence or host disease outcome. Within the same pathogen species, virulence can vary considerably depending on strain or lineage, in turn eliciting variable host responses. One pathogen that has caused extensive biodiversity loss is the amphibian-killing fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is comprised of a globally widespread hypervirulent lineage (Bd-GPL), and multiple geographically restricted, enzootic lineages. Whereas host immunogenomic responses to Bd-GPL have been characterized in a number of amphibian species, immunogenomic responses to geographically restricted, enzootic Bd lineages are less clear. To examine lineage-specific host immune responses to Bd, we exposed a species of pumpkin toadlet, Brachycephalus pitanga, which is endemic to Brazil's Southern Atlantic Forest, to either the Bd-GPL or the enzootic Bd-Asia-2/Brazil (hereafter Bd-Brazil) lineage. Using temporal samples from early, mid, and late infection stages, we quantified functional immunogenomic responses over the course of infection using differential gene expression tests and coexpression network analyses. Host immune responses varied significantly with Bd lineage. Relative to controls, toadlet responses to Bd-Brazil were weak at early infection (25 genes significantly differentially expressed), peaked by mid-stage infection (414 genes), and were nearly fully resolved by late-stage infection (nine genes). In contrast, responses to Bd-GPL were magnified and delayed; toadlets significantly differentially expressed 111 genes early, 87 genes at mid-stage infection, and 726 genes by late-stage infection relative to controls. Given that infection intensity did not vary between mid- and late-stage disease in either Bd-Brazil or Bd-GPL treatments, this suggests that pumpkin toadlets may be at least partially tolerant to the enzootic Bd-Brazil lineage. In contrast, late-stage immune activation against Bd-GPL was consistent with immune dysregulation previously observed in other species. Our results demonstrate that both the timing of immune response and the particular immune pathways activated are specific to Bd lineage. Within regions where multiple Bd lineages co-occur, and given continued global Bd movement, these differential host responses may influence not only individual disease outcome, but transmission dynamics at the population and community levels. ItemTraditional taxonomy underestimates the number of species of Bokermannohyla (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) diverging in the mountains of southeastern Brazil since the Miocene(2023-01-01) Brunes, Tuliana O.; Pinto, Felipe C. S.; Taucce, Pedro P. G.; Santos, Marcus Thadeu T. [UNESP]; Nascimento, Luciana B.; Carvalho, Daniel C.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Leite, Felipe S. F.; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade do Porto; CIBIO; Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais; Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Instituto Tecnológico Vale; Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV)Despite the huge difference in land coverage between mountains and lowlands, most species are indeed found in mountains and foothills. The causes of this pattern have challenged biogeographers and evolutionary biologists. The Espinhaço and Mantiqueira Ranges are large mountain ranges from eastern Brazil that are global biodiversity hotspots located between the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (AF) and the Cerrado. However, Espinhaço and Mantiqueira species diversity may still be underestimated, either due taxonomic complexity or morphological cryptic species complexes. Two hylid frogs, Bokermannohyla nanuzae and Bokermannohyla feioi, are endemic, respectively, distributed in these two mountain ranges. These species were recently synonymized based on traditional taxonomy. We used data from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene 16S and two nuclear genes to undertake phylogenetic and network, distance-based, and multispecies coalescent analyses on B. nanuzae, B. feioi, and an extensive outgroup dataset. We tested the monophyly of B. nanuzae, as well as the presence of candidate new species. Based on 16S phylogenetic analysis, We recovered B. nanuzae as paraphyletic, with B. sagarana nested within it. We recovered two main groups, with the geographic distribution generally corresponding to the Cerrado and AF boundaries. Probably due to ancestral polymorphism, both nuclear haplotype genealogies failed to distinguish B. nanuzae from the former B. feioi and/or from B. sagarana. The time-calibrated mtDNA tree revealed that B. martinsi, B. sagarana, and B. nanuzae have diverged during the Late Miocene, subsequently splitting into the remaining species/lineages during the Plio-Pleistocene. Taken together, our distance-based barcode and nuclear Bayesian analyses identified the former B. feioi, referred to as the AF group, as a distinct evolutionary lineage from B. nanuzae (Cerrado group). We provide the first insights into how different evolutionary lineages speciated in the highlands of southeastern Brazil and revalidated B. feioi for the AF group.