Artigos - Psicologia da Educação - FFC

URI Permanente para esta coleção


Submissões Recentes

Agora exibindo 1 - 20 de 170
  • ItemArtigo
    Moral competence and medical education in contemporary times: a Brazilian study
    (2022-01-01) de Castro, Marcio Rodrigues; Pereira, Alexandre de Araújo; Bataglia, Patrícia Unger Raphael [UNESP]; Universidade José do Rosário Vellano; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    To evaluate the moral competence of medical students, this article compares different moments of medical training, identifying sociodemographic and academic aspects related to this competence, then discussing the evaluation tool. This is a quantitative, cross-sectional and observational study, with application of the extended version of Lind’s Moral Competence Test and a socio-demographic and academic questionnaire. Low mean scores were identified in the periods evaluated—the first period’s mean was higher than the others—and behavior that deviates from the “physician’s dilemma” in relation to the others, regardless of the period. Low moral competency scores were detected in all periods evaluated, with decline or stagnation over the course and “segmentation phenomenon” of the test. No relevant correlation of sociodemographic and academic variables was identified. Finally, this study found scores for the initial periods lower than those described in the literature, suggesting a generational trend.
  • ItemArtigo
    Out of sight out of mind: Psychological distance and opinion about the age of penal majority
    (2022-09-15) Caldas, Ivete Furtado Ribeiro; Paim, Igor de Moraes; Leite, Karla Tereza Figueiredo; de Mello Junior, Harold Dias; Bataglia, Patrícia Unger Raphael [UNESP]; Martins, Raul Aragão [UNESP]; Pereira, Antonio; Pará State University; Science and Technology of Ceará; Rio de Janeiro State University; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA)
    The growth of urban violence in Brazil, as in other countries, has led citizens to demand more severe and punitive measures to solve the problem of juvenile crime. One motion submitted to the Brazilian parliament, for instance, proposes to reduce the age of penal majority (APM) from 18 to 16 years. Our hypothesis is that popular opinions about this proposal are largely constrained by construal levels and psychological distance. Accordingly, we expect that the knowledge and proximity to the circumstances associated with juvenile transgression will influence opinions about the proposal. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated how opinion against or for the proposal can be explained by psychological distance and moral development theory. We studied two samples, composed of people who do not have a deep experience with the subject (passersby in a public square (N = 77) and workers from a juvenile justice court (N = 157). After collecting socio-demographic information from the subjects and their answer to moral dilemmas, the data was subjected to a multivariate analysis by multimodal logistic regression for socio-demographic characteristics, Kohlberg moral stages, and opinion on the reduction of APM (agree, indifferent, and disagree) as dependent variables. Our findings suggest that 1) opinion about the APM depends on psychological distance and 2) socioeconomic variables may influence the average construal level of adolescent transgressors in the public’s perspective.
  • ItemArtigo
    The Theory of Social Representations as a Theoretical and Methodological Tool for Research on Teachers in Brazil Analyses of Theses and Dissertations
    (Routledge, 2011-01-01) Stefano Menin, Maria Suzana de [UNESP]; Shimizu, Alessandra de Morais [UNESP]; Lima, Claudia Maria de [UNESP]; Chaib, M.; Danermark, B.; Selander, S.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
  • ItemArtigo
    Is There a Rationale for Author Byline Order? A Case Study of the Journal of Informetrics
    (2022-01-01) Hilário, Carla Mara; Grácio, Maria Cláudia Cabrini [UNESP]; Martínez-Ávila, Daniel; Wolfram, Dietmar; Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidad de León; University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
    Multiple authorship on research publications is common in many disciplines. Is the order in which authors appear in the byline determined by consistent criteria? This study investigated co-authored papers published in the Journal of Informetrics in 2016, the year in which this representative journal of the area of informetrics started to publish the articles with the author contributions form, as a case study to determine if there is consistency in the author order based on author contributions. For the papers studied, there was greater consistency for the first and last authors, and less consistent rationale for the order of the remaining author positions for the papers studied. A survey sent to the authors of the publications studied revealed that authors believed the first and last author positions played a more distinctive role. The lack of agreement and function of author order in other positions raises the question about the significance of author order and its purpose in determining the credit authors receive for co-authored publications.
  • ItemArtigo
    Pragmatic Reductionism: On the Relation between Contingency and Metacontingency
    (Springer, 2022-06-08) Zilio, Diego; Carrara, Kester [UNESP]; Leite, Felipe Lustosa; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); ITC Imagine Behav Technol
    One of the main arguments in favor of the metacontingency as a model for explaining social phenomena is that it embraces another kind of selection (cultural selection) beyond natural and operant selection. Despite being emergent on operant processes, it would not be reducible to operant selection. Consequently, cultural selection would demand a conceptual framework of its own, hence the metacontingency. Assuming the existence of another kind of selection is an ontological premise, and that this new process requires its own conceptual framework, because contingency analysis is insufficient to explain it, can be considered an epistemological premise. Our goal in this paper is to argue that the epistemological premise present in the metacontingency literature is wrong. To do so, we present pragmatic reductionism as a model to discuss the possibility of reductive explanations of selection and maintenance of cultural practices from metacontingency to contingency analysis. Based on this framework, we provide examples of pragmatic reductive interpretations, thought experiments, and an analysis of experimental data in which we try to explain away the metacontingency. We conclude that it is possible to pragmatically reduce metacontingency explanations to contingency explanations. That does not, however, invalidate the ontological premise about the existence of different processes related to cultural evolution and selection whatever those might be. It only shows that, if they exist at all, they are not the ones being studied in metacontingency research.
  • ItemArtigo
    Tools, processes, and products of subject representation: a study of the ISKO-Brazil conference proceedings (2012-2019)
    (2020-01-01) de Oliveira, Lais Pereira [UNESP]; Grácio, Maria Cláudia Cabrini [UNESP]; Martínez-Ávila, Daniel; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M)
    The approaches to the tools, processes, and products of subject representation in the ISKO-Brazil conference proceedings are analyzed. It is a descriptive, qualiquantitative, and bibliographic research that works with the ISKO Brazil conference proceedings as the object of study and employs bibliometric and content analysis methods to obtain results on the scientific production. The results reveal the predominance of thesauri and indexing policies, in relation to tools; indexing and classification, in relation to processes; and notation, in relation to products; and more specifically, construction and typology of thesauri, in relation to tools; and document processing in archives and images, in relation to processes.
  • ItemTrabalho apresentado em evento
    The influence of corresponding authorship on the impact of collaborative publications: A study on Brazilian institutions (2003-2015)
    (2019-01-01) Grácio, Maria Cláudia Cabrini [UNESP]; De Oliveira, Ely Francina Tannuri [UNESP]; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Moed, Henk F.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Spanish National Research Council; Sapienza University of Rome
    This paper analyses the influence of a Brazilian institution delivering the corresponding author on its scientific citation impact, distinguishing between its collaborative papers with foreign institutions and those resulting from national collaboration. We retrieved from Scopus database a total of 607,454 Brazilian documents for all 443 Brazilian institutions with at least 100 documents published from 2003 to 2015. We evaluated the difference between the normalized citation impact as corresponding author and that as non-corresponding author, applying paired t-tests both for international and for national collaboration. As result, for international collaboration, it was observed that the normalized citation impact achieved by Brazilian institutions depends upon corresponding author status, and that, in case of non-corresponding authorship, the impact shows a significant benefit when the paper has a corresponding author from a foreign institution. In national collaboration, the institutions benefit as non-corresponding author, although the difference is small to influence the practice of the institutions' scientific policies. Thus, the indicator of corresponding author provides additional information relevant to Brazilian institutions in international collaboration, but not in national institutional co-authorship, which is more influenced by the institution's recognized scientific tradition and publishing strategies/practices.
  • ItemArtigo
    Good scientific practice: A behavior-analytical discussion
    (2018-01-01) Guazi, Taísa Scarpin [UNESP]; Laurenti, Carolina; Carrara, Kester [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM)
    The publication of a report with guidelines of good scientific practice by CNPq in 2011 is considered one of the milestones in the discussion on integrity in science in Brazil. The objective of this work was to discuss such guidelines under a behavioral approach, considering them as rules. Although rules offer advantages to the acquisition of good practices by researchers, the teaching of morality should not be restricted to the exposure of these professionals to these guidelines, but provide conditions for them to be sensitive to the different ethical issues that may arise in the context of the production of scientific knowledge. The analysis of the document published by CNPq also shows that the consequences of misconduct and good practices in science are postponed and nonspecific. On the other hand, the consulted literature correlates scientific fraud with the demands of scientific productivity: in some cases, the misconduct seems to allow the researcher to adapt to the demands of productivity. Moreover, consequences associated with academic productivity contingencies are more immediate and may, therefore, exert more control over the behavior of the scientist. The discussion about scientific fraud, in this sense, implies considering the current academic contingencies.
  • ItemLivro
    Radical behaviorism and cultural analysis
    (2018-01-01) Carrara, Kester [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This book shows how the three-term contingency paradigm created by B.F. Skinner can be applied to describe and explain cultural practices phenomena produced by complex relations between behavior and environment. It updates the academic debate on the best paradigm to analyze complex social interactions (contingency or metacontingency), arguing that Skinner’s three-term contingency - the conceptual tool created to analyze human behavior by decomposing it in three parts: discriminative stimulus, operant response and reinforcement/punishment - is the best unit of analysis since what is selected in social interactions are not the actions of the group but of individuals gathered in a group situation to form an articulated and interlocked behavioral practice. The author argues in favor of a relational approach to study behavior and identifies its theoretical foundations in the philosophy of Ernst Mach, especially in Mach’s concept of functional relations and its influence on Skinner. Departing from this theoretical framework, the author argues that behavior can only be studied through the analysis of how it emerges from relations, and cannot be explained by hypothetical constructs such as cognitive maps, personality formation mechanisms, drives, traits and preconceived motivational forces. Radical Behaviorism and Cultural Analysis will be of interest to psychology researchers and students interested in the theoretical foundations of behavior analysis, as well as to social scientists and policy makers from other areas interested in how behavior analysis can be used to study complex social interactions and how it can be applied to build a more fair and sustainable society through cultural planning and the development of prosocial behavior.
  • ItemArtigo
    Apontamentos para uma definição comportamentalista de cultura
    (2017-01-01) Fernandes, Diego Mansano [UNESP]; Carrara, Kester [UNESP]; Zilio, Diego; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES)
    Behavioral analysis of social and cultural processes are not new in our field, since those were an important aspect of Skinner early interests, and a substantial part of his later works. However, the last three decades gave rise to new approaches to social and cultural processes, and this body of knowledge has been growing through theoretical, experimental and quasi-experimental research over the years. Although the field produced important innovations, one question remains particularly difficult to answer: the very definition of culture. Skinner made some observations on this subject, and more recently other researchers tried to discuss the matter and provide solutions, but different uses for the same word or the use of different words meaning the same thing poses a challenge to conceptual clarity. By means of a conceptual analysis of the works of Skinner, we aim to give a systematic position of Skinner's uses of the term culture. We found two main possibilities: 1) the use of the term culture as another way to say a set of contingencies; 2) the use of the term culture as another way to say a set of cultural practices. We discuss the theoretical implications of these possibilities, and ultimately argue, with further clarifications, for the definition of culture as a set of social contingencies. In doing so, we hope to provide a possible and coherent radical behaviorist definition of culture, which might serve as a guiding concept for further research in Behavioral Analysis of Culture.
  • ItemArtigo
    A pesquisa brasileira em estudos métricos da informação: Proximidade entre pesquisadores de destaque e áreas afins
    (2017-05-01) Grácio, Maria Cláudia Cabrini [UNESP]; De Oliveira, Ely Francina Tannuri [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This research aims to identify and analyze the prominent Brazilian and international researchers in Information Metric Studies in Brazil, the proximity established among them from the Brazilian researchers' perspectives, the disciplines, areas or sub-areas of knowledge that contribute for the theoretical and methodological development in order to provide subsidies and instruments for the Information Metric Studies. The objectives are analyzed in light of the nature of the researches declared by this scientific community, in order to contribute to identify and visualize the possible similarities and theoretical-methodological differences adopted by these groups. As research procedure, it was used the questionnaire as a data collection instrument. Out of the universe of 42 Brazilian researchers, 18 (∼ 43%) responded to the questionnaire. The co-citation network indicates a high degree of cohesion in the group of Brazilian and foreign researchers, with major presence of the latter. Regarding the areas, sub-areas and disciplines of knowledge that contribute to the epistemological, theoretical and methodological development, we highlight the areas of Exact Sciences, Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, with the first one being cited by most respondents. The Human Sciences area appeared as the second most cited. The Information Science, Scientometrics, Scientific Communication, Scientific Methodology and Bibliometry compose the subareas mentioned within the Social Sciences area. We conclude pointing to parity among the indicators derived from qualitative and quantitative data as well as the completion of the two analyzes.
  • ItemArtigo
    Depression and cognitive decline: Factors related to demographics and psycho pharmacotherapy on elderly in nursing homes
    (2014-01-01) Soares, Edvaldo [UNESP]; de Souza Rossignoli, Patrícia [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Objectives: To identify the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially DP and CD, on a sample of nursing home residents, relating this prevalence with some aspects of the demographics and psycho pharmacotherapy. Methods: 48 elders from two different nursing homes were selected. The collection of demographic and pharmacological data was made utilizing medical records. The medication was classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Code (ATC) criteria. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 30) and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) tests were utilized to determine the prevalence of DP and CD. Results: It was observed in the sample a high incidence of DP and CD among the researched elders. More schooling individuals tend to present less CD. Individuals with less CD indicatives present less symptomatology for DP. Of all the researched elders, 54,2% are submitted to psycho pharmacotherapy. Of all the consumed medicine, 16,5% belonged to the class of neuropsychiatric medicine. The medicated elders present, in average, a larger symptomatology for DP (12 points/average/GDS) than the non-medicated elders (9,9 points/average/GDS). The inverse occurs in relation to the CD indicatives. The use of psychotropics, especially in association, can have negative effects related to depression and cognition. Discussion: The pharmacotherapy, characterized for the polymedication and chronicity, especially of neuropsychiatric medicines, deserves special attention among elders, because the data suggest a significant relation between the utilization of medicines, singly or in association, and the increase of CD and DP. In addition, the data suggest that DP is a risk factor for CD and DM.
  • ItemTrabalho apresentado em evento
    Theoretical referents in knowledge organization: A domain analysis of the knowledge organization journal
    (2012-01-01) Guimarães, José Augusto Chaves [UNESP]; De Oliveira, Ely Tannuri [UNESP]; Gracio, Maria Cláudia Cabrini [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Aiming at contributing to the epistemological characterization of the area of knowledge organization, our goal is to analyze the κO journal, since its creation in 1993, as a knowledge domain, from a nuclear community of the most productive and greater impact authors, analyzing the dialogue among citing authors and cited ones, and also the co-citations established by the citing authors. We worked with a corpus of 310 articles published between 1993 and 2011 produced by a total of 360 authors. The relatively more productive authors, a group geographically concentrated in Europe (37%), North America (44%) and Asia (19%), is clearly explained by the historical European origin of the ISKO and by an increasing North American presence along the years. Of the 33 most cited authors, 22 were co-cited in at least 6 works, which suggests that they are the theoretical referential nucleus of the area, in the studied journal. Finally, we observe that the area reveals theme cohesion and coherence in its production, enabling us to clearly visualize its theoretical referential nucleus and to confirm the role performed by the KO magazine as a catalyzing agent of international theoretical construction in the area.
  • ItemTrabalho apresentado em evento
    Normalized indicators of the international Brazilian research: A scientometric study of the period between 1996 and 2011
    (2013-12-01) Grácio, Maria Cláudia Cabrini [UNESP]; de Oliveira, Ely Francina Tannuri [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
  • ItemTrabalho apresentado em evento
    Contribution of brazilian scientific production to mainstream science in the field of mathematics: A scientometrics analysis (2002-2011)
    (2013-12-01) Castanha, Renata Cristina Gutierres [UNESP]; Grácio, Maria Cláudia Cabrini [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
  • ItemArtigo
    A Validação do Teste de Juízo Moral (MJT) para Diferentes Culturas: O Caso Brasileiro
    (2010-10-14) Bataglia, Patricia Unger Raphael [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The present article deals with the adaptation of the Moral Judgment Test (MJT) for the Portuguese language. The principles of the test, its format and the process of content, construct and criterion validation are presented. In the same way, reliability is discussed using Brazilian research results that produced the necessity of elaborating another dilemma to compose the MJT-xt (extended).
  • ItemArtigo
    In the air and on the streets: Pajubá and humor among transvestites from a city in são paulo state
    (2021-01-01) Brancaleoni, Ana Paula Leivar [UNESP]; Kupermann, Daniel; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    This work aims to discuss the making of humor among transvestites who experience conditions of high social vulnerability, with special emphasis on the“pajubá”, a dialect initially used among transvestites and later also appropriated by other groups in the LGBTT+ universe. We will use excerpts from interviews and situations observed, from an ethnographic perspective, during fieldwork with a group of transvestites from a city in São Paulo state, as well as cultural productions that invite us to reflect on the issue. Psychoanalysis is included as a proposed theoretical interlocution. Several dimensions of humor are identified: The production of modes of sociability; depathologization of travestilities; indication of the performative character of gender binarism; transformation of anguish into laughter, celebration of life. Through laughter, transvestites also assert themselves as subjects who do not resign themselves to suffering, who do not succumb to an unfavorable and exclusionary reality.
  • ItemArtigo
    Desempenho de Alunos do Quarto Ano em Testes de Subitização e Estimativa e no Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE)
    (2015-01-01) Do Prado, Paulo Sérgio Teixeira [UNESP]; De Freitas Betetto, Mariana; Casali-Robalinho, Ivana Gisel; Fioraneli, Rogério Crevelenti; Mendes, Alessandra Campanini; Rocca, Júlia Zanetti; Da Silva Cacciacarro Lincoln, Leila Estevão; Zampieri, Marília; Dos Santos Carmo, João; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Consultoria de Psicologia Educacional; Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo; Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar); Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso; Victor Vision Industria e Comercio de Equipamentos Medicos e Odontologicos; Curso de Especialização em Psicologia Clínica Comportamental, Instituto de Terapia por Contingências de Reforçamento; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia Sobre Comportamento, Cognição e Ensino
    The paper reports a research conducted with 62 students enrolled in the fourth grade of two schools of different cities of São Paulo state: one private and another public. Its purpose was to investigate the relation between their performance on probes of subitizing and estimation and on the School Performance Test (TDE). Subitizing and approximate numerical estimation are part of number sense, which is considered innate, therefore not subject to infl uence of environmental factors such as type of school attended, contrary to what would be expected with respect to math skills learned in school. Additionally, once number sense is innate it would be restricted to limits whose overcoming is made possible by cultural advancements. So between it and math skills one would expect a weak or absent correlation. Results of subitizing and estimating test showed the same pattern of performance found in the literature: virtually no errors with numerosities 1 to 4 and an abrupt drop from 5 to 10. Comparisons were performed according to administrative dependence of schools, age and sex of the participants. No statistically signifi cant differences were found. The results of the arithmetic subtest of the TDE indicate a better performance of private school students, with no differences in respect to the other variables. Finally, the analysis of Correlation (by Pearson) between the data from the two tests showed a moderate to low coeffi cient. Therefore, the results confi rm the hypotheses tested and provide additional evidence in favor of the thesis of an innate numerical sense.
  • ItemArtigo
    Quality Of Life Questionnaire For Children With Cerebral Palsy (Cp Qol-Child): Translation And Cultural Adaptation To The Brazilian Portuguese Language
    (2013-01-01) Braccialli, Lígia Maria Presumido [UNESP]; Braccialli, Ana Carla; Sankako, Andréia Naomi [UNESP]; Da Costa Dechandt, Maria Luiza [UNESP]; Da Silva Almeida, Vanessa [UNESP]; De Carvalho, Sebastião Marcos Ribeiro [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); São José do Rio Preto
    The aim of this study was to verify the reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument Cerebral Palsy: quality of life questionnaire for children: primary caregiver questionnaire (CP QOLChild: primary caregiver) translated and culturally adapted. Thus, the translation and cultural adaptation of the instrument was made, and then the procedures to verify its reliability were performed. The translated and culturally adapted questionnaire was answered by 30 caregivers of children with cerebral palsy and inter- and intra-observer analysis followed. The data allowed the authors to identify an internal consistency rangering from 0.649 to 0.858, intra-observer reliability from 0.625 to 0.809 and inter-observer reliability from 0.498 to 0.903. The analysis suggests that the instrument has acceptable psychometry.
  • ItemTrabalho apresentado em evento
    The relationship between authors and main thematic categories in the field of knowledge organization: a bibliometric approach
    (Ergon-verlag Gmbh, 2012) Arboit, Aline Elis; Gracio, Maria Cláudia Cabrini; Oliveira, Ely Francina Tannuri de; Bufrem, Leilah Santiago; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    This is a study about the relationships between authors and the main thematic categories in the papers published in the last five International ISKO Conferences, held between 2002 and 2010. The aim is to map the domain as ISKO conferences are considered the most representative forum in the field. The published papers are considered to indicate the relationships between authors and themes. The Classification Scheme for Knowledge OrganizationError! Bookmark not defined. Literature (CSKOL) was used to categorize the papers. The theoretical and methodological foundations of the study can be found in the concept of domain analysis proposed by Hjørland. The analysis of the papers (n = 146) led to the identification of the most productive authors, the networks representing the relationships between the authors as also the categories that constitute the primary areas of research.