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    Contested Landscapes: Territorial Conflicts and the Production of Different Ruralities in Brazil
    (2022-01-01) Fernandes, Bernardo Mançano [UNESP]; Welch, Clifford Andrew; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    It is through landscape that we see and feel the complexity of the relations and objects that make up space, territory, region, and place. Landscape is the expression of the multidimensionality and multiscalarity of territory and its ruralities (Marsden, Sociologia Ruralis 29:312–317, 1989). In rural studies landscape is made manifest by rurality. Rurality is the configuration of social life in relation to natural resources, goods, services, cultural values, and social categories like class—the social formation, as it were—of the territories that make up rural landscapes (Hecht, Land Use Policy 27:161–169, 2010; Wanderley, Estudos Sociedade e Agricultura 15:87–145, 2000).
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    Agriculture, Environment and Development: International Perspectives on Water, Land and Politics, Second Edition
    (2022-01-01) Ioris, Antonio Augusto Rossotto; Fernandes, Bernardo Mançano [UNESP]; School of Geography and Planning; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The Second Edition of this book is completely revised and updated throughout providing an overview of current challenges faced within the area of Agri-food in relation to policymaking, ecological conservation and socio-environmental justice. Including a range of new chapters, the book explores some of the conceptual and analytical gaps that are presented by current approaches to this topic. The series of interconnected chapters offers a critical reinterpretation of the tensions associated with the failures of mainstream regulatory regimes, land and resource grabbing, and the impacts of global agri-food chains at local, regional and inter-sectoral scales. The book also examines past legacies and emerging challenges associated with agriculture modernisation, politico-spatial disputes, climate change, social movements, gender, ethnicity and education. It likewise addresses the transformative potential of different combinations of biophysical, socio-technical and socio-spatial practices of food sovereignty.
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    Accumulation by Land Rent and Territorial Disputes in a Brazilian Agricultural Frontier
    (2022-01-01) Fernandes, Bernardo Mançano [UNESP]; Frederico, Samuel [UNESP]; Pereira, Lorena Izá [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Land grabbing has changed the agrarian question on a world scale, much more intensely from the first decade of the twenty-first century with the financialisation of agriculture, producing the global agrarian question. In Brazil, a new ‘administrative region’—MATOPIBA—was created mainly to meet the territorialised interests of financial capital in the production of flexible commodities.
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    Monsoon in são paulo state, brazil
    (2019-01-01) Machado, Antonio Jaschke [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This paper corroborates the existence of monsoon in São Paulo, revealed from the observation of periodic fluctuations in absolute humidity. The daily cycle and the seasonal cycle recorded in two sites in the eastern and western extremes of São Paulo are compared and analyzed. The incorporation of the wind direction to the analysis suggests the existence of a monsoon regime, whose transition between the wet season and the dry season is defined by the variation of the absolute humidity.
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    Territories of hope: A human geography of agrarian politics in Brazil
    (2022-01-01) Fernandes, Bernardo Mançano [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The Landless Rural Workers Movement (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST)) is widely recognized for its struggles for land and for producing healthy food. Since its birth, 40 years ago, the MST has continued to territorialize itself, producing its own existence. There are hundreds of thousands of families fighting for the peasant condition, which is much more than fighting for land. In this article, I argue that MST members are not simply fighting for land in isolated agrarian reform settlements. Rather, as the mística suggests, they are producing new understandings, practices, and imaginaries of the Brazilian national space. Through their mobilization, their labor on the land, and their solidarity as expressed in countless meetings, marches, and collective organizations, they are actively producing alternative territories that sit within but resist the hegemonic national territory. I incorporate theories from critical human geography to argue that territory is a category that unites land and governance. Territorial control is established by (depends on) the norms, rules, and rights in any given place and time. Within the context of the modern nation-state, the MST can be understood as producing new territories, ones that are aspirational and emerging—I call these “territories of hope” to signal the material and symbolic labor of collective desire. These territories are constituted through relations within MST settlements and between MST members and the state, agribusiness corporations, and the broader public across various spatial and temporal dimensions and scales.
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    For a Powerful Geography in the Brazilian National Curriculum
    (2021-01-01) Castellar, Sonia Maria Vanzella; Pereira, Carolina Machado Rocha Busch; Guimarães, Raul Borges [UNESP]; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Federal University of Tocantins; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This chapter presents an overview of the elaboration of the Brazilian Common Core Curriculum (BNCC), that is, the national school curriculum, in the specific context of Geography teaching, for which the BNCC is both the national reference and the methodological framework. The process of the consolidation of the primary, elementary and secondary school curricula is presented, and the implementation of these curricula by the different Brazilian states and municipalities is also discussed. The chapter is organised in three sections: (i) the historical context of educational policies in Brazil, including its political implications and organisational boundaries, (ii) geographical reasoning based on real situations, and (iii) the role of Geography in the Brazilian Common Core Curriculum.
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    Re-peasantization, Resistance and Subordination: The Struggle for Land and Agrarian Reform in Brazil
    (2021-01-01) Fernandes, Bernardo Mançano [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The process of re-peasantization in Brazil occurs primarily through the peasant struggle for land and agrarian reform. Adopting a geographic method and using territorialization as a central axis of study, this article analyzes the history of peasant formation, particularly focusing on the formation of the Landless Rural Workers’ Movement (MST), the peasant movement that has most contributed to the process of recreating the peasantry through land occupations. The process of re-peasantization occurring over the last 30 years is supported by data showing that more than a million families have been settled through agrarian reform. However, these fractional territorial gains have not eliminated the subordination of peasants by capitalized land rent. Using data from the most recent Agricultural Census, we highlight the situation of dependence to which Brazilian peasants are submitted. The hegemony of agribusiness has provoked a reflux in the peasant struggle for land and agrarian reform, which currently finds itself stagnant. The greatest challenge for peasant movements is the creation of a development model for their territories which would enable them to recuperate the process of re-peasantization.
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    (2020-07-02) Nascimento Júnior, Lindberg; Sant’Anna Neto, João Lima [UNESP]; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    An application of Social Vulnerability Index-SoVI® is presented, with the interest of contributing to vulnerability to natural disasters in urban areas on geographic studies. As an example, we used demographic census data by urban census sectors of Santos city-São Paulo Coastal Zone. Nine mean components of social vulnerability in Santos were detected and it explain 75.6% of variance. The first component is social, racial and gender inequality and the most vulnerable population group is the youngs wemen, browns, without income, literate, and residents in improvised households. High SoVI® values were observed in northern sectors of city, which comprises the port area, the center and the areas of subnormal households. The lowest indexes are distributed in the southern sector, especially on the beach front. In Santos, the mapping of SoVI® shows an effective subproduct of historical events and socio-spatial contexts, which explains how the processes of precarious and segregated urbanization incorporated different levels of social vulnerability with deprivation of social rights, to thee city and social justice. The use of SoVI® for urban areas can be an interesting strategy for natural risks and disasters studies, provided that the methodological processes of elaboration and organization are theoretically clear and substantiated.
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    Instability and decline of participatory budgeting in Brazilian and Portuguese municipalities (2016-2019)
    (2022-01-01) Lüchmann, Lígia Helena Hahn; Bogo, Rodrigo Sartori [UNESP]; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    To analyze the phenomenon of shrinking municipal participatory budgets (PBs) in Brazil and Portugal, the article presents unprecedented data on the occurrence of these participatory processes comparing the years of 2016 and 2019. The results find that, despite a decrease in cases in both countries, Brazil shows a drop of more than 80% in PB cases in this period, while the index in Portugal is of almost 22%. Mobilizing the theoretical field of public policies, the article discusses the importance of political-partisan electoral changes and suggests that the abandonment of PBs not only occurs due to the change of governments, among other elements, but also correlates to the effects of creation and growth of other less demanding formats of participation, such as public hearings in Brazil and sectorial modalities of PBs, in addition to digital modalities in Portugal.
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    (2022-01-01) Abellán, Francisco Cebrián; Sposito, Maria Encarnação Beltrão [UNESP]; Dammert-Guardia, Manuel; Castilla-La Mancha University; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP)
    The recent decades have been characterized by the increasingly prominent role of cities on different scales. They have also been typified by contradictory realities: the maturing of the urbanization process, the deceleration of demographic growth, the concentration of the most important functions in big cities, the growing importance of intermediate cities, an increase in spatial dynamics, and the generalization of urban sprawl and urban areas. From the perspective of urban space, there is growing concern about ecological transition, environmental impacts, and sustainability, given social imbalances and the diversification and integration of different sectors of cities. These processes are also common in Latin American and Caribbean cities, which are among the most urbanized regions in the world. The structural change of this subcontinent in the 20th century is the result of migratory processes, segmentation and shifts in labor markets, large-scale forms of socio-spatial segregation, and the predominance of informal/irregular channels of access to housing and land. However, the 21st century presents new urban circumstances. In this chapter, we discuss: a) the specific characteristics of urban growth, with a special focus on heterogeneity between countries and urban agglomeration scales; b) the increasing prominence of intermediate cities; and c) the metropolitization process and governance at the urban level in recent decades.
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    Indicator of the Succession Stages of Forest Fragments of the Atlantic Forest Biome
    (2019-07-01) Amorim, Amanda Trindade [UNESP]; de Sousa, Jocy Ana Paixão [UNESP]; Lourenço, Roberto Wagner [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Studies on the succession stages of forest fragments are essential for their preservation and conservation, as well as contributing significantly to the management and planning aimed at recovering their biodiversity. However, the evaluation of these stages demands high costs, qualified personnel and time, especially in the fieldwork. Therefore, research has emerged incorporating methods that use geoprocessing techniques for evaluations of this nature. The objective of this research was to study the parameters that interfere in the dynamics of the forest fragments and the biophysical characteristics, whose purpose was to propose an indicator of the succession stages of forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest biome. To this was used as the basis the Murundú-Paiol watershed located in the southeast of the state of São Paulo. The methods were based on the study of the factors that interfere in the dynamics of forest fragments (size, anthropic effect around, altitude, relief and sun exposure) and vegetation indices, generated from geoprocessing techniques. All these factors were correlated and the forest fragments were selected for evaluation in the field. Among all the parameters evaluated, only those related to altitude and relief showed a good correlation with the vegetation indices, being these the integrating parameters in the indicator of the succession stages. This indicator showed an accuracy of 85.7% in the evaluation, which allows to be replicated in other similar studies, presenting as a viable scientific alternative and capable of indicating the probable succession stage of the forest fragments.
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    Machining the World: Drummond and Mining.
    (Univ Federal Fluminense, 2022-01-01) Stockler, Nayara da Silva [UNESP]; Wisnik, Jose Miguel; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
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    (Univ Estadual Paulista Julio Mesquita Filho, Fac Ciencias & Tecnologia, 2023-02-01) Assuncao, Adenilso dos Santos; Camacho, Rodrigo Simao [UNESP]; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS); UFGD; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    We present a reflection on the practice of Pedagogy in Alternating Cycle developed at Rosalvo da Rocha Rodrigues Agricultural Family School (EFAR). As pedagogical praxis in Rural Education, has links with Freirean Popular Education by opposing the capitalist of education project, by fomenting peasants in agricultural technicians who contribute to the emancipation of excluded and subordinated subjects through the organization and strengthening of class identity for the sociopolitical processes of territorial resistance.This article analyzes the political/school experience through the dialectical method, starting from the concrete history of the struggle for the conquest of the land. The methodologies used were theoretical discussion a and field research of EFAR, where we interviewed educators, students and managers.
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    (Univ Federal Goias, Dept Geografia, 2022-09-01) Martins, Francielle Garcia [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The use of pesticides in Brazil is guided by the developmental logic disseminated worldwide by the Green Revolution. The country has programmed its agricultural development policies and actions guided by the dictates of such a revolution, causing serious socio-environmental impacts to different territories and populations. The State develops specific legislation responsible for regulating pesticides, with various changes that occur over the years, according to the needs and interests of economic and political groups. Brazil is on the way to consolidate itself as one of the largest consumers of these substances in the world. Thus, this article aims to analyze the temporal evolution of the legislation that regulates the regulation of pesticides in Brazil, in order to understand the role of the State in this important sphere. In addition, we also seek to present and analyze panoramas regarding the use of these substances and their serious and diverse consequences for nature and society. A bibliographic survey on the subject and secondary data collected from public and private agencies were used as a methodology. The results demonstrate, in general, loosening of rules and legislation about the regulation of pesticides in the country, providing a scenario of progressive increase in their use, benefiting agribusiness and impacting nature and society.
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    (Univ Estadual Paulista Julio Mesquita Filho, Fac Ciencias & Tecnologia, 2022-12-01) Buscioli, Lara Dalperio [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Agroecology is established in the scientific field through different techniques, disciplines, theoretical-methodological contributions in line with the traditional knowledge of the peasantry, who seek, from a critical analysis of the socio-environmental crisis, to advance in the consolidation of productive resistance in the agroecological sphere, such as this is the case of agroecological baskets in Primavera (SP), which has consolidated itself as an important instrument of struggle and productive resistance for the MST, and is the object of study in this work. The basket project contributes to the productive transition process of peasants and the formative-political process of consumers, allows for the debate of food sovereignty via donations of baskets in this period of the COVID-19 Pandemic, creates bonds of affection between producers and consumers and takes consumption of healthy foods free of pesticides to the population.
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    (Univ Estadual Paulista Julio Mesquita Filho, Fac Ciencias & Tecnologia, 2022-09-01) Souza, Edvnia Angela de [UNESP]; Thomaz Junior, Antonio [UNESP]; Carvalhal, Marcelo Dornelis [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    This article discusses the setbacks in Brazilian Social Security since the counter-reform occurred in 2019. This situation is even worse when it is considered the main feature of the labour market in this country: a high proportion of the working class is in informal employment and, as a result, enormous obstacles to making contributions to secure access to pensions, especially in rural areas. The paper also analyses the effects of the previous counter-reform in the Employment and Social Security policies adopted in 2017, as well as the challenges faced by the rural labour force in the context of increased use of new technological tools, digitalisation and information sources in agricultural production. Those challenges had been a distinctive feature of the capital expansion before the COVID-19 pandemic, showing its relevance in the (post)pandemic period. As final remarks, the work highlights the historical context of capital development in which (re)definitions of the power and control of the work is predominant in global geopolitics. Therefore, the counter-reform of social rights, the elimination of social protection mechanisms and the neoliberal rationales are related to a more general capital movement promoting widened productivity, cost reductions and capital accumulation rates by controlling work and nature.
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    (Univ Estadual Paulista Julio Mesquita Filho, Fac Ciencias & Tecnologia, 2022-09-01) Pedroso, Mateus Fachin [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The present text aimed to reflect on the interpretation of the landscape through the vision of women living health-illness processes, specifically with HIV/AIDS, considering their intersectionalities, experiences and spatial practices in the city from the perspective of Feminist and Gender Geographies. Under these premises, an activity was carried out with women from the Plug and Play group of the Prudentine Association for the Prevention of AIDS (APPA) in a joint manner, in which questions were stimulated to work on the perception of the landscape of these women in their daily lives, with the intention of highlighting the main relationships they establish between memory and practices in space. This activity was coordinated in order to build the representations, as well as to encourage the debates that were directed by means of questions that comprised a semi-structured script. In this sense, it was possible through different examples to highlight the central categories in the lives of these women, such as work, spheres of conviviality and relationships, their daily journeys, and their memories, which were interpreted through the elaboration of multiple constructed landscapes.
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    Agricultural expansion and environmental degradation in the Sepotuba river basin - Upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso State - Brazil
    (Editora da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia - EDUFU, 2023-05-01) Leandro, Gustavo Roberto Dos Santos [UNESP]; Rocha, Paulo Cesar [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The diverse forms of appropriation generate important changes and impacts in the landscapes. In this sense, the present work aimed to analyze the spatial-temporal evolution of agricultural expansion and environmental degradation indices in the Sepotuba River basin, Upper Paraguay basin. For this purpose, satellite images were georeferenced, classified and processed for the period 1986-2016. The thematic maps were validated with the aid of the Kappa Index and subsidized the evaluation of the changes through the Anthropic Transformation Index (ATI). The results showed that there is a strong relationship between agriculture and the suppression of important extensions of native coverage. In the upper and middle course, Tangará da Serra as a pole that has an important role concerning monocultures. In the low course, Cáceres exerts its influence with the predominance of Livestock. Important phytophysiognomies that make up the Sepotuba river basin were identified - a result of the convergence between the Amazon, Cerrado and Pantanal biomes. The results obtained indicate different degrees of impairment of environmental quality in the Sepotuba River system, according to the expansion of land use and occupation in its sub-basins.
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    Análise da recuperação das queimadas por NDVI da Baixada do Massiambú no Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro
    (Even3, 2022-01-12) Santos, Marlon Vinicíus Ferreira dos [UNESP]; Rocha, Paulo Cesar [UNESP]; Guimarães, Raul Borges [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    O presente trabalho é voltado para a baixada do Massiambú, localizada no Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro no Estado Santa Catarina, esta unidade de conservação tem grande importância pois possui um dos maiores remanescente da Mata Atlântica em seu Estado segundo IMA 2021. O local de estudo sofre com um histórico de eventos de incêndios e queimadas, uma das maiores ocorrências aconteceu no período do segundo semestre de 2019, a partir desses acontecimentos esta pesquisa buscou a produção de Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada (NDVI), que possibilita analisar o índices de vegetação por técnicas de sensoriamento remoto. De modo geral, com a análise prévia das imagens, foi possível identificar a perda de um grande quantidade de vegetação dentro da unidade de conservação. E realizar comparativo aos cenários anteriores e posteriores das queimadas.
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    Agrofloresta urbana e sua interferência no clima de Presidente Prudente-SP: análise comparativa entre a estação chuvosa e seca
    (Even3, 2023-01-20) Miyakava, William; Amorim, Margarete Cristiane de Costa Trindade [UNESP]; Goes, Maria Julia; Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
    A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos da agricultura urbana agroflorestal nos elementos do clima de Presidente Prudente (SP), partindo da hipótese de que o sistema agroflorestal urbano influencia positivamente na dinâmica do clima urbano local. Para isso, realizou-se o registro de dados de temperatura e umidade relativa do ar em meses representativos da estação chuvosa (fevereiro e março) e seca (julho e agosto) de 2021 a partir de sensores automáticos em 3 pontos fixos. Os sensores foram instalados em um ponto urbano (densamente construído), no entorno rural próximo e em área com agrofloresta urbana. Também foram elaborados gráficos de análise rítmica segundo a proposta de Monteiro (1971) para analisar a variação dos elementos do clima nos diferentes pontos, considerando-se os sistemas atmosféricas atuantes. A partir da coleta, organização, tabulação e tratamento dos dados, foi possível calcular a intensidade de temperatura e umidade do ar nos pontos supracitados e representá-los em painéis espaço-temporais, em conjunto com os gráficos de análise rítmica (MONTEIRO, 1971), que permitiram uma análise mais acurada através da sucessão do ritmo climático diário e mensal do recorte temporal trabalhado. Por fim, a hipótese foi comprovada ao se verificar que a vegetação é de extrema importância na influência do clima urbano local, aliando-se com os fatores sociais do uso da terra através da inserção da agricultura agroflorestal urbana, resultando em impactos positivos na dinâmica da cidade, favorecendo a disponibilidade de alimentos de qualidade, gestão sustentável dos recursos naturais e diminuição do desconforto térmico da população.