ItemArtigoEffect of proteins isolated from Brazilian snakes on enterovirus A71 replication cycle: An approach against hand, foot and mouth disease(2023-06-30) Shimizu, Jacqueline Farinha [UNESP]; Feferbaum-Leite, Shiraz; Santos, Igor Andrade; Martins, Daniel Oliveira Silva [UNESP]; Kingston, Natalie J.; Shegdar, Mona; Zothner, Carsten; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Harris, Mark; Stonehouse, Nicola J.; Jardim, Ana Carolina Gomes [UNESP]; Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Brazilian Centre for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM); University of Leeds; Universidade de São Paulo (USP)Enterovirus A71 (EVA71) belongs to the Picornaviridae family and is the main etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). There is no approved antiviral against EVA71, and therefore the search for novel anti-EVA71 therapeutics is essential. In this context, the antiviral activity of proteins isolated from snake venoms has been reported against a range of viruses. Here, the proteins CM10 and CM14 isolated from Bothrops moojeni, and Crotamin and PLA2CB isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus were investigated for their antiviral activity against EVA71 infection. CM14 and Crotamin possessed a selective index (SI) of 170.8 and 120.4, respectively, while CM10 and PLA2CB had an SI of 67.4 and 12.5, respectively. CM14 inhibited all steps of viral replication (protective effect: 76 %; virucidal: 99 %; and post-entry: 99 %). Similarly, Crotamin inhibited up to 99 % of three steps. In contrast, CM10 and PLA2CB impaired one or two steps of EVA71 replication, respectively. Further dose-response assays using increasing titres of EVA71 were performed and CM14 and Crotamin retained functionality with high concentrations of EVA71 (up to 1000 TCID50). These data demonstrate that proteins isolated from snake venom are potent inhibitors of EVA71 and could be used as scaffolds for future development of novel antivirals. ItemEditorialEditorial: Early Life Epigenetic Programming of Health and Disease through DOHaD Perspective(2023-02-10) Justulin, Luis A. [UNESP]; Zambrano, Elena; Ong, Thomas P.; Ozanne, Susan E.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); University of Cambridge ItemArtigoFunctional Fermented Milk with Fruit Pulp Modulates the In Vitro Intestinal Microbiota(2022-12-01) Borgonovi, Tais Fernanda [UNESP]; Salgaço, Mateus Kawata [UNESP]; Oliveira, Gislane Lelis Vilela de [UNESP]; Carvalho, Lucas Amoroso Lopes de [UNESP]; Pinheiro, Daniel Guariz [UNESP]; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Sivieri, Kátia [UNESP]; Casarotti, Sabrina Neves; Penna, Ana Lúcia Barretto [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP); UFR—Federal University of RondonópolisThe effect of putative probiotic fermented milk (FM) with buriti pulp (FMB) or passion fruit pulp (FMPF) or without fruit pulp (FMC) on the microbiota of healthy humans was evaluated. FM formulations were administered into a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME®) to evaluate the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), microbiota composition, presence of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and ammonium ions. The probiotic LAB viability in FM was affected by the addition of the fruit pulp. Phocaeicola was dominant in the FMPF and FMB samples; Bifidobacterium was related to FM formulations, while Alistipes was associated with FMPF and FMB, and Lactobacillus and Lacticaseibacillus were predominant in FMC. Trabulsiella was the central element in the FMC, while Mediterraneibacter was the central one in the FMPF and FMB networks. The FM formulations increased the acetic acid, and a remarkably high amount of propionic and butyric acids were detected in the FMB treatment. All FM formulations decreased the ammonium ions compared to the control; FMPF samples stood out for having lower amounts of ammonia. The probiotic FM with fruit pulp boosted the beneficial effects on the intestinal microbiota of healthy humans in addition to increasing SCFA in SHIME® and decreasing ammonium ions, which could be related to the presence of bioactive compounds. ItemArtigoRoles of Bothrops jararacussu toxins I and II: Antiviral findings against Zika virus(2023-02-01) Cassani, Natasha Marques; Santos, Igor Andrade; Grosche, Victória Riquena [UNESP]; Ferreira, Giulia Magalhães; Guevara-Vega, Marco; Rosa, Rafael Borges; Pena, Lindomar José; Nicolau-Junior, Nilson; Cintra, Adélia Cristina Oliveira; Mineo, Tiago Patriarca; Sabino-Silva, Robinson; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Jardim, Ana Carolina Gomes [UNESP]; Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)Zika virus is the etiologic agent of Zika fever, and has been previously associated with cases of microcephaly, drawing the attention of the health authorities worldwide. However, no vaccine or antiviral are currently available. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) isolated from snake venoms have demonstrated antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we demonstrated the anti-ZIKV activity of bothropstoxins-I and II (BthTX-I and II) isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom. Vero E6 cells were infected with ZIKVPE243 in the presence of compounds for 72 h, when virus titers were evaluated. BthTX-I and II presented strong dose-dependent inhibition of ZIKV, with a SI of 149.1 and 1.44 × 105, respectively. These toxins mainly inhibited the early stages of the replicative cycle, such as during the entry of ZIKV into host cells, as shown by the potent virucidal effect, suggesting the action of these toxins on the virus particles. Moreover, BthTX-I and II presented significant activity towards post-entry stages of the ZIKV replicative cycle. Molecular docking analyses showed that BthTX-I and II potentially interact with DII and DIII domains from ZIKV Envelope protein. Our findings show that these PLA2s could be used as useful templates for the development of future antiviral candidate drugs against Zika fever. ItemArtigoExploring the Association between Citrus Nutraceutical Eriocitrin and Metformin for Improving Pre-Diabetes in a Dynamic Microbiome Model(2023-05-01) Cesar, Thais [UNESP]; Salgaço, Mateus Kawata [UNESP]; Mesa, Victoria; Sartoratto, Adilson; Sivieri, Katia [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Université Paris Cité; Universidad de Antioquia (UdeA); Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)Pre-diabetes is recognized as an altered metabolic state, which precedes type 2 diabetes, and it is associated with great dysfunction of the intestinal microbiota, known as dysbiosis. Natural compounds, capable of reducing blood glucose without side effects and with a beneficial effect on the microbiota, have been studied as substitutes or adjuvants to conventional hypoglycemic agents, such as metformin. In this work, the effect of the nutraceutical Eriomin®, a mixture of citrus flavonoids (eriocitrin, hesperidin, naringin, and didymin), which reduces glycemia and increases glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in pre-diabetic patients, was tested in the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®), inoculated with pre-diabetic microbiota. After treatment with Eriomin® plus metformin, a significant increase in acetate and butyrate production was observed. Furthermore, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of the microorganisms showed that Eriomin® plus metformin stimulated the growth of Bacteroides and Subdoligranulum genera. Bacteroides are the largest fraction of the intestinal microbiota and are potential colonizers of the colon, with some species producing acetic and propionic fatty acids. In addition, Subdoligranulum species are associated with better host glycemic metabolism. In conclusion, Eriomin® associated with metformin improved the composition and metabolism of the intestinal microbiota, suggesting a potential use in pre-diabetes therapy. ItemArtigoProposal to Screen for Zinc and Selenium in Patients with IgA Deficiency(2023-05-01) Abu Jamra, Soraya Regina; Komatsu, Camila Gomes [UNESP]; Barbosa, Fernando; Roxo-Junior, Persio; Navarro, Anderson Marliere; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The increase in life expectancy can be a consequence of the world’s socioeconomic, sanitary and nutritional conditions. Some studies have demonstrated that individuals with a satisfactory diet variety score present a lower risk of malnutrition and better health status. Zinc and selenium are important micronutrients that play a role in many biochemical and physiological processes of the immune system. Deficient individuals can present both innate and adaptive immunity abnormalities and increased susceptibility to infections. Primary immunodeficiency diseases, also known as inborn errors of immunity, are genetic disorders classically characterized by an increased susceptibility to infection and/or dysregulation of a specific immunologic pathway. IgA deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary antibody deficiency. This disease is defined as serum IgA levels lower than 7 mg/dL and normal IgG and IgM levels in individuals older than four years. Although many patients are asymptomatic, selected patients suffer from different clinical complications, such as pulmonary infections, allergies, autoimmune diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and malignancy. Knowing the nutritional status as well as the risk of zinc and selenium deficiency could be helpful for the management of IgAD patients. Objectives: to investigate the anthropometric, biochemical, and nutritional profiles and the status of zinc and selenium in patients with IgAD. Methods: in this descriptive study, we screened 16 IgAD patients for anthropometric and dietary data, biochemical evaluation and determination of plasma and erythrocyte levels of zinc and selenium. Results: dietary intake of zinc and selenium was adequate in 75% and 86% of the patients, respectively. These results were consistent with the plasma levels (adequate levels of zinc in all patients and selenium in 50% of children, 25% of adolescents and 100% of adults). However, erythrocyte levels were low for both micronutrients (deficiency for both in 100% of children, 75% of adolescents and 25% of adults). Conclusion: our results highlight the elevated prevalence of erythrocyte zinc and selenium deficiency in patients with IgAD, and the need for investigation of these micronutrients in their follow-up. ItemCapítulo de livroImpact of probiotic and prebiotic on gut microbiota in pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes(2022-03-08) Ramos, Fernanda Maria Manzini [UNESP]; Salgaço, Mateus Kawata [UNESP]; Cesar, Thais [UNESP]; Sivieri, Katia [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The increased worldwide prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, requiring different strategies for their prevention and management. A new focus is the reversal of diabetes dysbiosis, a disruption of gut microbiota homeostasis, which is closely related to elevated blood glucose levels and altered metabolic parameters. In this sense, a balanced diet plays a key role, and, particularly, probiotic and prebiotic have shown a promising role. This chapter explored current knowledge on the potential of probiotic and prebiotic to modulate glucose homeostasis. We showed that the consumption of probiotics and prebiotics is a promising strategy with a beneficial impact on gut microbiota and glycemic control. Furthermore, specific probiotic strains, such as L. acidophilus, L. casei strain Shirota, and B. lactis Bb12, have demonstrated the ability to improve parameters related to pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. In addition, polyphenols are emerging as a new alternative in glycemic control through the production of short chain fat acids (SCFA) and decreased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) translocation that leads to metabolic endotoxemia. Finally, the ingestion of beneficial bacteria, and foods rich in fiber and polyphenols, or a combination of them, is a good strategy for the control of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes, but more studies are still needed, mainly clinical trials, for these strategies are improved and widely used. ItemArtigoHandgrip force and bite force in dentulous and edentulous individuals(2023-01-01) Jabr, Camila Luiz [UNESP]; Oliveira, Lucas Portela [UNESP]; Campos, Lucas Arrais [UNESP]; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini [UNESP]; de Oliveira Lima, Amanda Laísa [UNESP]; de Assis Mollo Júnior, Francisco [UNESP]; Filho, João Neudenir Arioli [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Tampere University; Tampere University Hospital; University of Eastern FinlandBackground: The literature is unclear about bite force (BF) and handgrip force (HF) in a specific group of different ages and dentate conditions, or even a predictive model for each specific group, using BF and HF as factors. Objective: To establish the correlation between HF and BF in female participants with distinct ages and dentate conditions; also create a predictive model of BF as a function of HF. Methods: Participants were divided into three groups (GI: young natural dentate women, n = 65; GII: adult natural dentate women, n = 67; and GIII: edentulous women users of bimaxillary complete dentures, n = 67) and subjected to an HF measurement test using a digital dynamometer. Subsequently, BF was measured using a digital gnathodynamometer in the molar region. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and multivariate analysis of variance (α = 0.05) were performed, and simple linear regression was used to obtain a model to predict BF from HF for each group separately (α = 0.05). Results: All groups presented moderate and strong correlations among the variables (GI: r = 0.838; GII: r = 0.714; GIII: r = 0.646). A significant difference in BF was observed (GI > GII > GIII; p <.05). GIII presented a significantly lower HF than the other groups (p <.05). Besides, three equations predicting BF, using HF, were obtained for use in young/adult dentate and edentulous women. Conclusion: All groups found a positive and significant correlation between BF, HF and groups. HF can be a simple and efficient method for predicting BF using the predictive models developed for women with good health. ItemArtigoExploring the Potential of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 as Promising Psychobiotics Using SHIME(2023-03-01) De Oliveira, Fellipe Lopes [UNESP]; Salgaço, Mateus Kawata [UNESP]; de Oliveira, Marina Toscano; Mesa, Victoria; Sartoratto, Adilson; Peregrino, Antonio Medeiros; Ramos, Williams Santos; Sivieri, Katia [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); University of Araraquara—UNIARA; Faculty of Pharmacy; Universidad de Antioquia (UdeA); Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP); Pernambuco State University (UPE); APSEN FarmacêuticaPsychobiotics are probiotics that have the characteristics of modulating central nervous system (CNS) functions or reconciled actions by the gut–brain axis (GBA) through neural, humoral and metabolic pathways to improve gastrointestinal activity as well as anxiolytic and even antidepressant abilities. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 on the gut microbiota of mildly anxious adults using SHIME®. The protocol included a one-week control period and two weeks of treatment with L. helveticus R0052 and B. longum R0175. Ammonia (NH4+), short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), cytokines and microbiota composition were determined. Probiotic strains decreased significantly throughout the gastric phase. The highest survival rates were exhibited by L. helveticus R0052 (81.58%; 77.22%) after the gastric and intestinal phase when compared to B. longum (68.80%; 64.64%). At the genus level, a taxonomic assignment performed in the ascending colon in the SHIME® model showed that probiotics (7 and 14 days) significantly (p < 0.005) increased the abundance of Lactobacillus and Olsenella and significantly decreased Lachnospira and Escheria-Shigella. The probiotic treatment (7 and 14 days) decreased (p < 0.001) NH4+ production when compared to the control period. For SCFAs, we observed after probiotic treatment (14 days) an increase (p < 0.001) in acetic acid production and total SCFAs when compared to the control period. Probiotic treatment increased (p < 0.001) the secretion of anti-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-10) and decreased (p < 0.001) pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha) when compared to the control period. The gut–brain axis plays an important role in the gut microbiota, producing SCFAs and GABA, stimulating the production of anti-anxiety homeostasis. The signature of the microbiota in anxiety disorders provides a promising direction for the prevention of mental illness and opens a new perspective for using the psychobiotic as a main actor of therapeutic targets. ItemArtigoContinuous or interval aerobic exercise training reduces daily fructose intake in female Wistar rat(2022-01-01) Oharomari, Leandro Kansuke [UNESP]; Manfredi, Mateus Luís; Joaquim, Anderson Gregório; Chimin, Patricia; De Moraes, Camila; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL)Objctive Fructose consumption has increased worldwide. Excessive fructose intake has been a risk factor for the increased metabolic syndrome disorder incidence. This study aimed to investigate the possible influence of two different exercise training methods, continuous and interval, on fructose intake. Methods Thirty two-months-old female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: sedentary + water; sedentary + fructose; continuous training + water; interval training + water; continuous training + fructose; interval training + fructose. Fructose was given in drinking water (10%). Continuous (40 minutes at 40% maximal speed) or interval training (28 minutes, 1 minute at 70%; 3 minutes at 35% maximal speed) sessions were carried out 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Results Fructose consumption decreased food intake with a concomitant increase in fluid intake. Continuous and interval training did not modify food intake but progressively reduced fructose ingestion. In the 8th week, interval training + fructose and continuous training + fructose groups drank less fructose solution, 35% and 23%, respectively, than sedentary + fructose group.Conclusion The findings indicate that both continuous and interval aerobic exercise training seem to modulate food behavior, possibly by mitigating the craving for sweetness, with interval training being more effective in reducing fructose intake than continuous exercise ItemArtigoThe Effect of Limosilactobacillus reuteri on Social Behavior Is Independent of the Adaptive Immune System(2022-12-01) Dooling, Sean W.; Sgritta, Martina; Wang, I-Ching; Duque, Ana Luiza Rocha Faria [UNESP]; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Baylor College of Medicine; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Gut microbes can modulate almost all aspects of host physiology throughout life. As a result, specific microbial interventions are attracting considerable attention as potential therapeutic strategies for treating a variety of conditions. Nonetheless, little is known about the mechanisms through which many of these microbes work. Recently, we and others have found that the commensal bacterium Limosilactobacillus reuteri (formerly Lactobacillus reuteri) reverses social deficits in several mouse models (genetic, environmental, and idiopathic) for neurodevelopmental disorders in a vagus nerve-, oxytocin-, and biopterin-dependent manner. Given that gut microbes can signal to the brain through the immune system and L. reuteri promotes wound healing via the adaptive immune response, we sought to determine whether the prosocial effect mediated by L. reuteri also depends on adaptive immunity. Here, we found that the effects of L. reuteri on social behavior and related changes in synaptic function are independent of the mature adaptive immune system. Interestingly, these findings indicate that the same microbe (L. reuteri) can affect different host phenotypes through distinct mechanisms. ItemArtigoQseC sensor kinase modulates the human microbiota during enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®)(2023-03-01) Melchior, Karine [UNESP]; Salgaço, Mateus Kawata [UNESP]; Sivieri, Katia [UNESP]; Moreira, Cristiano Gallina [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important gastrointestinal pathogen known for its ability to cause hemorrhagic colitis and induce hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The inner membrane QseC histidine kinase sensor has shown to be an important regulator of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) island, where important EHEC key virulence genes are located. However, the QseC role during EHEC infection in human microbiota remains unknown. Herein, using the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®), we investigated whether the QseC sensor has a role in human microbiota modulation by EHEC in a dynamic model. Our data demonstrated that the QseC sensor modulates human microbiota during EHEC infection, and its absence leads to an increase in Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacterium genus predominance, although non-effect on Bacteroides genus by EHEC strains was observed. In co-culture, the Lactobacillus acidophilus has affected EHEC growth and impaired the EHEC growth under space-niche competition, although no growth difference was observed in the QseC sensor presence. Also, differences in EHEC growth were not detected in competition with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and EHEC strains did not affect B. thetaiotaomicron growth either. When investigating the mechanisms behind the SHIME results, we found that hcp-2 expression for the type 6 secretion system, known to be involved in bacterial competition, is under QseC sensor regulation beneath different environmental signals, such as glucose and butyrate. Our findings broaden the knowledge about the QseC sensor in modulating the human microbiota and its importance for EHEC pathogenesis. ItemResenhaFood environment and excess weight in schoolchildren: a South American systematic review(2022-01-01) de Oliveira Cardozo, Najla [UNESP]; Crisp, Alex Harley; Fernandes, Anna Christina Pinheiro; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Araneda-Flores, Jacqueline; de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Movimento Humano; Facultad de Medicina – Clínica Alemana; New York University; Universidad de Bío BíoObjective. To identify and compile the findings of observational studies analyzing the relationship of factors from the school food environment and individual factors related to food consumption in school with excess weight in schoolchildren from South America in the period from 2011 to 2021. Method. The literature review involved a search performed in five databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SciELO, Scopus, and LILACS) and in Google Scholar, as well as a consultation with specialists. Studies were selected if they had an observational design, included schoolchildren aged 5 to 19 years, were performed in South America, and used objective measures such as body mass index (World Health Organization and/or International Obesity Task Force) to assess weight in association with school food environment factors and individual school consumption factors. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020212383). Results. Of 906 identified records, 13 cross-sectional studies (one from Argentina, one from Ecuador, and 11 from Brazil) were included in the review. The prevalence of overweight ranged from 7.5% to 32.5%, and of obesity, from 1.7% to 28.0%. School environment factors from the policy and physical domains (such as unsatisfactory food and nutrition education and unavailability of school-prepared meals) were associated with increased prevalence of excess weight. Individual factors related to adherence to the school meal program (such as consumption of meals offered by the school instead of bringing a snack from home) were associated with lower prevalence of excess weight. Conclusions. Only a few studies are available in South America with a focus on individual and/or school food environment factors and excess weight in schoolchildren. Since the available evidence is restricted to local or regional contexts, new national-level studies are warranted. ItemArtigoInterval or continuous aerobic exercise performed 3 days a week increases endothelium-dependent relaxation in female rats fed with fructose(2022-01-01) Joaquim, Anderson Gregorio; Oharomari, Leandro Kansuke [UNESP]; do Vale, Gabriel Tavares; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato; de Moraes, Camila; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Laboratório de FarmacologiaAim: We investigated the effects of continuous or interval aerobic exercise training on vascular reactivity of female rats fed with fructose. Methods: Female Wistar rats (8-wk old) were divided into: sedentary (SD), continuous training (CTR), and interval training (ITR). Moderate intensity training protocols consisted of running 3 days/week for 7 weeks. CTR ran 40 min at 30%-40% of the maximal speed (MS) and TRI consisted of 7 sets of 1 min at 70% of MS followed by 3 min at 35% of MS. Animals were fed with standard chow and fructose (10%) in drinking water. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine and phenylephrine, and oxidative stress biomarkers, were determined in the aorta. Body weight gain, visceral fat, and plasma triglycerides and glucose were also evaluated. Results: Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly increased by both exercise regimens (CTR: Emax = 85 ± 6% and ITR: Emax = 84 ± 1%) compared to sedentary rats (SD: Emax = 62 ± 5%). The contractile maximal response was not different but phenylephrine potency was increased in CTR (pEC50: 8.41 ± 0.19) and reduced in ITR (pEC50: 7.06 ± 0.11) compared to SD (pEC50: 7.77 ± 0.08). In addition, the generation of superoxide was lower in trained groups as compared with sedentary (about -28% in CTR and -22% in ITR). TBARS and nitrate/nitrite levels were not modified. Compared to the SD group, ITR gained 39% less body weight and CTR has 29% less visceral fat. Glucose and triglycerides were not modified. Conclusion: CTR and ITR, carried out 3 days/week, were efficient to improve endothelium-dependent relaxation and reduce superoxide generation in the aorta from female rats fed with fructose. ItemArtigoAlginate films as carriers of probiotic bacteria and Pickering emulsion(2022-12-01) Medeiros, Jackson Andson [UNESP]; Otoni, Caio Gomide; Niro, Carolina Madazio; Sivieri, Katia [UNESP]; Barud, Hernane S.; Guimarães, Francisco E.G.; Alonso, Jovan D. [UNESP]; Azeredo, Henriette M.C.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar); University of Araraquara (UNIARA); Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)Bioactive edible films have been proposed from a calcium-crosslinked alginate matrix added with probiotic bacteria (Bacillus coagulans, as the bioactive component) and/or bacterial cellulose nanocrystal (BCNC)-stabilized palm olein Pickering emulsion (as a hydrophobizing component). The emulsion, however, instead of increasing the surface hydrophobicity and the barrier to water vapor, decreased both, due to discontinuities on the film structure and possibly the BCNC layer around the droplets minimizing the surface exposure of the hydrophobic phase (and its effects on film hydrophobicity). The probiotic bacteria, on the other hand, besides increasing the elastic modulus (which was ascribed to electrostatic interactions between teichoic acid and calcium), also enhanced both surface hydrophobicity and barrier to water vapor, probably due to the hydrophobicity of Bacillus spores. The probiotics exhibited high viability (> 8 log cfu.g−1, on a dry film basis) during film drying, storage, and digestion in a simulated gastrointestinal tract. ItemCapítulo de livroFoods and supplements as probiotic delivery vehicles(2022-01-01) Pimentel, Tatiana Colombo; da Costa, Whyara Karoline Almeida; Tammy Priscilla Chioda, Delfino [UNESP]; Sônia Mariza Luiz, de Oliveira; Katia, Sivieri [UNESP]; Marciane, Magnani; Federal Institute of Paraná; Federal University of Paraíba; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Anhanguera UniversityThis chapter aimed to discuss the effect of probiotics (foods and supplements) on human health. Lactiplantibacillus, Limosilactobacillus, Lacticaseibacillus, Ligilactobacillus, and Bifidobacteria are the most common probiotic strains used. Probiotic foods comprised mainly yogurt, fermented milk, and kefir. The advantages of probiotic foods are the lower cost, positive consumer attitude, possible synergistic effects between the ingredients and probiotics, and the high variation potential. Probiotic foods consumption may improve the constipation symptoms, bone health markers, lipid profile, body mass, blood pressure, and postprandial glycemia. On the other hand, supplements can transfer high numbers of viable probiotics into the gastrointestinal tract without considerable loss during processing and storage and have lower difficulties from regulatory administration and legislation standpoint. Probiotic supplements may relieve intestinal disease symptoms, improve depression scores and oral health, and alleviate atopic dermatitis and urogenital disease. Overall, probiotic foods may be recommended for general use and supplements for specific therapeutic applications. ItemArtigoSugar cane spirits: cachaca and rum production and sensory properties(Woodhead Publ Ltd, 2012-01-01) Faria, J. B.; Piggott, J.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)The production of cachaca, a distilled spirit made directly from sugar cane juice and rum obtained by fermenting molasses, a by-product of the sugar industry, are comparatively presented. The main differences, from raw material to fermentation, distillation and aging process are pointed out, in order to explain the resulting composition and distinct sensory characteristics of these two beverages and to show the importance of the sensory quality control, during all the production process. ItemCapítulo de livroTaurine and Exercise: Synergistic Effects on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Inflammatory Process in Obesity(2022-01-01) De Carvalho, Flavia Giolo; Batitucci, Gabriela [UNESP]; Abud, Gabriela Ferreira [UNESP]; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini [UNESP]; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)Taurine has been investigated as a possible strategy for the treatment of obesity. The benefits of taurine supplementation and the importance of adipose tissue to the whole-body energy metabolism are undeniable; however, the impact of the association of taurine and exercise on adipose tissue dynamics remains unclear, especially in the context of obesity. The present investigation sought to explore the effects of taurine supplementation associated with physical exercise as an excellent strategy for treating and preventing obesity. We highlighted the main studies that support the effects of taurine associated with exercise on the modulation of energy and lipid metabolism and also its impacts on the adipose tissue metabolism and morphology in obese individuals and obese animal models, suggesting taurine as a promising strategy to combat obesity. However, more investigations are necessary to elucidate the safe and effective dose, the mechanisms, and the potential effects of taurine supplementation associated with exercise in the adipose tissue as a therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating obesity. ItemArtigoBanana leathers as influenced by polysaccharide matrix and probiotic bacteria(2022-12-01) Niro, Carolina Madazio; Medeiros, Jackson Andson de [UNESP]; Bresolin, Joana Dias; Dionísio, Ana Paula; Salgaço, Mateus Kawata [UNESP]; Sivieri, Katia [UNESP]; Azeredo, Henriette M.C.; Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)Concerns abouth diet-health relationships have led many people to include healthier snacks in their diets, including those with functional (including probiotic) properties. This study was focused on development of probiotic-loaded banana leathers. Two probiotic bacteria (the spore-forming Bacillus coagulans and the conventional non-spore-forming Lactobacillus acidophilus) and two polymeric matrices (digestible cassava starch and non-digestible bacterial cellulose - BC) have been used. The presence of probiotic bacteria (mainly L. acidophilus) reduced the tensile strength, elastic modulus and shear force of the leathers, while the BC-based leathers were stronger, stiffer and more resistant to shear stress than the starch-based ones. While a high probiotic viability was kept on fruit leathers loaded with B. coagulans during drying and room-temperature storage, those loaded with L. acidophilus suffered high viability losses upon drying, which was ascribed to osmotic stress. The nature of the biopolymeric matrix has not significantly influence the bacterial viability losses along processing and storage, or the final viable cell count released into the intestine (as assessed using an INFOGEST static in vitro simulated digestion model). The banana leathers loaded with B. coagulans were well accepted, irrespectively of being produced from BC or starch, although some negative comments on the texture and flavor of the BC-based ones have been more frequent than with the starch-based ones. ItemArtigoWhat are the motives underlying Brazilians' food choices? An analysis of the Food Choice Questionnaire and its relationship with different sample characteristics(2022-01-01) da Silva, Wanderson Roberto [UNESP]; Marôco, João; Alvarenga, Marle dos Santos; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Federal University of Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG); Instituto Universitário (ISPA); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)The first aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ)—using the original model—in a sample of 1480 Brazilian adults (69.5% female). The second aim was to rank the reasons underlying the participants' food choices using average FCQ scores and 95% confidence interval. The third aim was to evaluate the relationship between food choice motives and sample characteristics using multiple logistic regression and odds ratios. The validity, the invariance across different groups, and the reliability of the FCQ were confirmed for the sample. Sensory appeal and price emerged as the most important reasons, while ethical concern was the least valued. The factors associated with greater odds of choosing food for specific reasons were being older, female, and a student; practicing physical activity; dieting frequently; self-rating eating quality as good; having a higher body mass index; and having low income. Practical Applications: Assessing food choice is a complex task, as it encompasses several factors, such as sensory characteristics, health status, income, culture, lifestyle, and cognitive-affective issues; therefore, the use of appropriate tools should be encouraged. The set analyses followed confirmed that the FCQ was an adequate instrument to evaluate the reasons for food choice of the participants who valued strongly the sensory aspects of the foods and presented specific characteristics (e.g., diet practice) that may influence their decisions. These findings may guide future research and clinical interventions aimed at producing food choices that are more oriented to health and well-being.