Artigos - Melhoramento e Nutrição Animal - FMVZ

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  • ItemArtigo
    Feedlot performance, rumen and cecum morphometrics of Nellore cattle fed increasing levels of diet starch containing a blend of essential oils and amylase or monensin
    (2023-01-01) Silva, Thaiano I. S. [UNESP]; Souza, Johnny M. [UNESP]; Acedo, Tiago S.; Carvalho, Victor V.; Perdigão, Alexandre; Silva, Leandro A. F. [UNESP]; Silvestre, Antonio M. [UNESP]; Niehues, Maria Betania [UNESP]; Schleifer, Werner F. [UNESP]; Casali, Daniel M. [UNESP]; Martins, Cyntia L. [UNESP]; Arrigoni, Mario D. B. [UNESP]; Millen, Danilo D. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); DSM Nutritional Products SA
    Feed additives used in finishing diets improve energy efficiency in ruminal fermentation, resulting in increased animal performance. However, there is no report evaluating the effect of BEO associated with exogenous α-amylase in response to increased starch content in feedlot diets. Our objective was to evaluate increasing levels of starch in the diet associated with a blend of essential oils plus amylase or sodium Monensin on performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal and cecal morphometry of feedlot cattle. 210 Nellore bulls were used (initial body weight of 375 ± 13.25), where they were blocked and randomly allocated in 30 pens. The experiment was designed in completely randomized blocks in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement: three starch levels (25, 35, and 45%), and two additives: a blend of essential oils plus α-amylase (BEO, 90 and 560 mg/kg of DM, respectively) or sodium Monensin (MON, 26 mg/kg DM). The animals were fed once a day at 08:00 ad libitum and underwent an adaptation period of 14 days. The diets consisted of sugarcane bagasse, ground corn, soybean hulls, cottonseed, soybean meal, mineral-vitamin core, and additives. The animals fed BEO35 had higher dry matter intake (P = 0.02) and daily weight gain (P = 0.02). The MON treatment improved feed efficiency (P = 0.02). The treatments BEO35 and BEO45 increased hot carcass weight (P < 0.01). Animals fed BEO presented greater carcass yield (P = 0.01), carcass gain (P < 0.01), rib eye area gain (P = 0.01), and final rib eye area (P = 0.02) when compared to MON. The MON25 treatment improved carcass gain efficiency (P = 0.01), final marbling (P = 0.04), and final subcutaneous fat thickness (P < 0.01). The use of MON reduced the fecal starch% (P < 0.01). Cattle-fed BEO increased rumen absorptive surface area (P = 0.05) and % ASA papilla area (P < 0.01). The MON treatment reduced the cecum lesions score (P = 0.02). Therefore, the use of BEO with 35 and 45% starch increases carcass production with similar biological efficiency as MON; and animals consuming MON25 improve feed efficiency and reduce lesions in the rumen and cecum.
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    Effect of Cow-Calf Supplementation on Gene Expression, Processes, and Pathways Related to Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis in Longissimus thoracis Muscle of F1 Angus × Nellore Cattle at Weaning
    (2023-02-01) Ramírez-Zamudio, Germán Darío; Ganga, Maria Júlia Generoso [UNESP]; Pereira, Guilherme Luis [UNESP]; Nociti, Ricardo Perecin; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto; Cooke, Reinaldo Fernandes; Chardulo, Luis Artur Loyola [UNESP]; Baldassini, Welder Angelo [UNESP]; Machado-Neto, Otávio Rodrigues [UNESP]; Curi, Rogério Abdallah [UNESP]; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar); Texas A&M University
    The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes, biological processes, and metabolic pathways related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis in calves receiving different diets during the cow-calf phase. Forty-eight uncastrated F1 Angus × Nellore males were randomly assigned to two treatments from thirty days of age to weaning: no creep feeding (G1) or creep feeding (G2). The creep feed offered contained ground corn (44.8%), soybean meal (40.4%), and mineral core (14.8%), with 22% crude protein and 65% total digestible nutrients in dry matter. After weaning, the animals were feedlot finished for 180 days and fed a single diet containing 12.6% forage and 87.4% corn-based concentrate. Longissimus thoracis muscle samples were collected by biopsy at weaning for transcriptome analysis and at slaughter for the measurement of intramuscular fat content (IMF) and marbling score (MS). Animals of G2 had 17.2% and 14.0% higher IMF and MS, respectively (p < 0.05). We identified 947 differentially expressed genes (log2 fold change 0.5, FDR 5%); of these, 504 were upregulated and 443 were downregulated in G2. Part of the genes upregulated in G2 were related to PPAR signaling (PPARA, SLC27A1, FABP3, and DBI), unsaturated fatty acid synthesis (FADS1, FADS2, SCD, and SCD5), and fatty acid metabolism (FASN, FADS1, FADS2, SCD, and SCD5). Regarding biological processes, the genes upregulated in G2 were related to cholesterol biosynthesis (EBP, CYP51A1, DHCR24, and LSS), unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis (FADS2, SCD, SCD5, and FADS1), and insulin sensitivity (INSIG1 and LPIN2). Cow-calf supplementation G2 positively affected energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis, and thus favored the deposition of marbling fat during the postweaning period, which was shown here in an unprecedented way, by analyzing the transcriptome, genes, pathways, and enriched processes due to the use of creep feeding.
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    Effect of sires’ expected progeny difference for scrotal circumference and juvenile ADG on the puberty of crossbred beef heifers
    (2023-06-01) Barroso, José Paulo Roman; de Castro Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius; Oliveira, Gabriela Bagio; Miszura, Alexandre Arantes; Bertoloni, Analisa Vasques; Martins, André Storti; Baggio, Marcelo; Polizel, Daniel Montanher [UNESP]; Biava, Janaina Socolovski [UNESP]; Ferreira, Evandro Maia; Pires, Alexandre Vaz; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The early attainment of puberty in heifers is essential for the profitability of the cow-calf farm. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of juvenile average daily gain (ADG) and sire’s expected progeny difference (EPD) on puberty of crossbred beef heifers. Sixty Angus × Nellore heifers early weaned (age = 102 ± 4.3 d; initial BW = 103 ± 4.7 kg) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The factor 1 was the sire’s EPD for scrotal circumference, in which heifers born from sires with positive EPD were considered precocious (P), and heifers born from sires with negative EPD were considered non-precocious (NP). The factor 2 was the high (HG; ADG = 0.9 kg; ad libitum) and medium ADG (MG; ADG = 0.7 kg) from 3rd to 7th month of age (1st phase). After 1st phase until puberty, all heifers were fed ad libitum (2nd phase). Statistical analysis was performed by SAS. There was an interaction between factors for DMI in the 1st phase (P = 0.02), which PHG heifers had higher DMI than NPHG. There was no effect on puberty rate, BW, age and BCS at puberty comparing HG vs. MG. However, favorable sires’ EPD for scrotal circumference induced a higher proportion of puberty (P 87% vs. NP 59%) at 15 months of age. Thus, the ADG in juvenile age did not affect puberty rate, but sires with positive EPD increased puberty rate of Angus × Nellore heifers in heifers fed a high gain diet.
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    Molecular characterization of persistent subclinical mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus from dairy farms
    (2023-06-01) Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lee, Sarah H. I.; Camargo, Carlos H.; Zanella, Rosemeire Cobo; Silva, Nathália C. C.; Rall, Vera. L. M. [UNESP]; Cue, Roger I.; dos Santos, Marcos V.; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Michigan State University; Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL); Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); McGill University
    The study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus causing subclinical mastitis (SM) isolated from dairy cows and to assess the effect of the infection status (transient vs. persistent) on the milk and component yield. A total of six dairy farms in São Paulo state were used for the selection of cows with SM caused by S. aureus. S. aureus strains (n = 56) obtained from three biweekly aseptic mammary quarter milk samplings (n = 1140 from 95 cows) were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis for species confirmation and further PFGE analysis. Intramammary infections (IMI) caused by S. aureus were categorized as transient (T: when only one out of 3 milk samplings had positive isolation of any pulsotype) or persistent (P: when two (P2) or three (P3) milk samplings had positive isolation of identical pulsotype over the consecutive episodes of SM. The SmaI macrorestriction fragment profiles of 56 S. aureus isolates showed a dominant S. aureus clonal pattern (PFGE type A; n = 50; 89.3%) within and among the herds. The SM-causing S. aureus represented a reduction of quarter milk yield of 26.2% in transient and 54.8% in persistent cases as well as a reduction of total solid yield of 38.1% and 49.4%, respectively, when compared with the healthy control quarters. Overall, the greater chance of S. aureus to be persistent is when a dominant clonal pattern is present in the herd which consequently may be associated with the cause of accentuated milk loss.
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    The Impact of Selective Dry Cow Therapy Adopted in a Brazilian Farm on Bacterial Diversity and the Abundance of Quarter Milk
    (2022-10-01) Goncalves, Juliano L.; Young, Juliana; Leite, Renata de F.; Fidelis, Carlos E.; Trevisoli, Priscila A.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Silva, Nathália C. C.; Cue, Roger I.; Rall, Vera Lucia Mores [UNESP]; dos Santos, Marcos V.; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Michigan State University (MSU); University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW); Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP); McGill University; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    We aimed to evaluate the impact of selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) (protocol 1: antimicrobial combined with internal teat sealant (ITS); vs. protocol 2: ITS alone) on bacterial diversity and the abundance of quarter milk. Eighty high production cows (parity ≤ 3 and an average milk yield of 36.5 kg/cow/day) from the largest Brazilian dairy herd available were randomly selected; milk quarter samples were collected for microbiological culture (MC) on the day of drying-off (n = 313) and on day 7 post-calving (n = 313). Based on the results of the MC before and after calving, 240 quarters out of 313 were considered healthy, 38 were cured, 29 showed new infections and 6 had persistent infections. Mammary quarters were randomly selected based on intramammary information status and SDCT protocols for bacterial diversity analyses. The bacterial diversity was similar when comparing both healthy and cured quarters submitted to both drying-off protocols. Despite healthy cows that were treated at dry-off using only teat sealant showing no alteration in the alpha and beta bacterial diversity, they did show a higher abundance of bacterial groups that may be beneficial to or commensals of the mammary gland, which implies that antibiotic therapy should be reserved for mammary quarters with a history of mastitis.
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    Improving the accuracy of beef cattle methane inventories in Latin America and Caribbean countries
    (2023-01-15) Congio, Guilhermo F.S.; Bannink, André; Mayorga, Olga L.; Rodrigues, João P.P.; Bougouin, Adeline; Kebreab, Ermias; Carvalho, Paulo C.F.; Berchielli, Telma T. [UNESP]; Mercadante, Maria E.Z.; Valadares-Filho, Sebastião C.; Borges, Ana L.C.C.; Berndt, Alexandre; Rodrigues, Paulo H.M.; Ku-Vera, Juan C.; Molina-Botero, Isabel C.; Arango, Jacobo; Reis, Ricardo A. [UNESP]; Posada-Ochoa, Sandra L.; Tomich, Thierry R.; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio A.; Marcondes, Marcos I.; Gómez, Carlos; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique M.N.; Gere, José I.; Ariza-Nieto, Claudia; Giraldo, Luis A.; Gonda, Horacio; Cerón-Cucchi, María E.; Hernández, Olegario; Ricci, Patricia; Hristov, Alexander N.; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Wageningen University & Research; Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research; Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro; University of California; Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); São Paulo Agribusiness Technology Agency; Federal University of Viçosa; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG); Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA); University of Yucatan; National Agrarian University La Molina; International Center for Tropical Agriculture; University of Antioquia; Autonomous University of the State of Mexico; Washington State University; Santa Catarina State University; National Technological University; National Scientific and Technical Research Council; National University of Colombia; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Institute of Pathobiology; National Institute of Agricultural Technology; The Pennsylvania State University
    On-farm methane (CH4) emissions need to be estimated accurately so that the mitigation effect of recommended practices can be accounted for. In the present study prediction equations for enteric CH4 have been developed in lieu of expensive animal measurement approaches. Our objectives were to: (1) compile a dataset from individual beef cattle data for the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region; (2) determine main predictors of CH4 emission variables; (3) develop and cross-validate prediction models according to dietary forage content (DFC); and (4) compare the predictive ability of these newly-developed models with extant equations reported in literature, including those currently used for CH4 inventories in LAC countries. After outlier's screening, 1100 beef cattle observations from 55 studies were kept in the final dataset (∼ 50 % of the original dataset). Mixed-effects models were fitted with a random effect of study. The whole dataset was split according to DFC into a subset for all-forage (DFC = 100 %), high-forage (94 % ≥ DFC ≥ 54 %), and low-forage (50 % ≥ DFC) diets. Feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) were the main predictors of CH4 emission (g d−1), whereas this was feeding level [dry matter intake (DMI) as % of body weight] for CH4 yield (g kg−1 DMI). The newly-developed models were more accurate than IPCC Tier 2 equations for all subsets. Simple and multiple regression models including ADG were accurate and a feasible option to predict CH4 emission when data on feed intake are not available. Methane yield was not well predicted by any extant equation in contrast to the newly-developed models. The present study delivered new models that may be alternatives for the IPCC Tier 2 equations to improve CH4 prediction for beef cattle in inventories of LAC countries based either on more or less readily available data.
  • ItemArtigo
    Effects of dietary copper and zinc hydroxychloride supplementation on bone development, skin quality and hematological parameters of broilers chickens
    (2023-01-01) dos Santos, Tatiane S. [UNESP]; Augusto, Karolina V. Z.; Han, Yanming; Sartori, Maria M. P. [UNESP]; Batistioli, Julianna S. [UNESP]; Contin Neto, Armando C. [UNESP]; Ferreira Netto, Raimundo G. [UNESP]; Zanetti, Leonardo H. [UNESP]; Pasquali, Guilherme A. M. [UNESP]; Muro, Everton M. [UNESP]; Araujo, Robert G. A. C. [UNESP]; Basso, Roberta M. [UNESP]; Guimarães, Victor Y. [UNESP]; Takahira, Regina K. [UNESP]; Kim, Woo K.; Sartori, José R. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Trouw Nutrition R&D; University of Georgia (UGA)
    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementation with different levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), using two mineral sources (sulphate and hydroxy forms), on the bone characteristics, skin strength/elasticity, and haematological parameters of broilers. A total of 1792 1-day-old male Cobb-500 broiler chickens were randomly distributed among eight dietary treatments, using Cu sulphate (CSM) or hydroxychloride (CHC), and Zn sulphate (ZSM) or hydroxychloride (ZHC). The dietary treatments were as follows: (1) low-CSM/high-ZSM, (2) high-CSM/high-ZSM, (3) low-CHC/low-ZHC, (4) low-CHC/medium-ZHC, (5) low-CHC/high-ZHC, (6) high-CHC/low-ZHC, (7) high-CHC/medium-ZHC, and (8) high-CHC/high-ZHC. On Day 42, blood samples were collected from one bird/pen to analyze the haematological parameters. Finally, two birds/pen were slaughtered, and the tibia and femur were collected to analyze the quality of bone and skin. The means were subjected to ANOVA and, when significant, compared by Tukey's test (p < 0.05) or Dunnett's (p < 0.05) test. The haematological parameters were not influenced by mineral supplementation. However, the inclusion of low ZHC enhanced the skin strength compared to high ZHC (p = 0.046). Furthermore, the bone mineral density of the tibia proximal epiphysis, tibia ash and tibia mineral content were positively improved with supplementation of low-CHC/medium-ZHC compared to high-CHC/medium-ZHC. This study demonstrated that hydroxy compounds are potential alternatives for replacing sulphate supplements in broiler diets. Moreover, among the Cu and Zn levels, the low CHC (15 mg/kg) and medium ZHC (100 mg/kg) improved bone development and skin integrity, suggesting that the combination of Cu and Zn can be a nutritional strategy to prevent the incidence of leg disorders in broilers.
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    Ruminal fermentation pattern of acidosis-induced cows fed either monensin or polyclonal antibodies preparation against several ruminal bacteria
    (2023-01-01) Pacheco, Rodrigo D. L. [UNESP]; Souza, Johnny M. [UNESP]; Marino, Carolina T.; Bastos, João Paulo S. T. [UNESP]; Martins, Cyntia L. [UNESP]; Rodrigues, Paulo H. M.; Arrigoni, Mario D. B. [UNESP]; Millen, Danilo D. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA); Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    This study was designed to evaluate a spray-dried multivalent polyclonal antibody preparation (PAP) against lactate-producing bacteria as an alternative to monensin (MON) to control ruminal acidification. Holstein cows (677 ± 98 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulas were allocated in an incomplete Latin square design with two 20 days period. Cows were randomly assigned to control (CTL), PAP, or MON treatments. For each period, cows were fed a forage diet in the first 5 days (d−5 to d−1), composed of sugarcane, urea and a mineral supplement, followed by a 74% concentrate diet for 15 days (d 0 to d 14). There were no treatment main effects (P > 0.05) on dry matter intake (DMI) and microbial protein synthesis. However, there was a large peak (P < 0.01) of intake on d 0 (18.29 kg), followed by a large decline on d 1 (3.67 kg). From d2, DMI showed an increasing pattern (8.34 kg) and stabilized around d 8 (12.96 kg). Higher mean pH was measured (P < 0.01) in cattle-fed MON (6.06 vs. PAP = 5.89 and CTL = 5.91). The ruminal NH3-N concentration of CTL-fed cows was lower (P < 0.01) compared to those fed MON or PAP. The molar concentration of acetate and lactate was not affected (P > 0.23) by treatments, but feeding MON increased (P = 0.01) propionate during the first 4 days after the challenge. Feeding MON and PAP reduced (P = 0.01) the molar proportion of butyrate. MON was effective in controlling pH and improved ruminal fermentation of acidosis-induced cows. However, PAP was not effective in controlling acidosis. The acidosis induced by the challenge was caused by the accumulation of SCFAs. Therefore, the real conditions for evaluation of this feed additive were not reached in this experiment, since this PAP was proposed to work against lactate-producing bacteria.
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    Effect of Supplementation of Lambs with Whole Cottonseed: Impact on Serum Biomarkers and Infection by Gastrointestinal Parasites under Field Conditions
    (2023-03-01) Kozlowski Neto, Vitoldo Antonio [UNESP]; Schmidt, Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos [UNESP]; Rubio, Camila Peres; Silva, Naiara Mirelly Marinho da [UNESP]; Tardivo, Renata [UNESP]; Costa, Ciniro [UNESP]; Meirelles, Paulo Roberto de Lima [UNESP]; Cerón, José Joaquín; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); University of Murcia
    The purpose of this trial was to evaluate serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemical analytes in crossbred lambs during the rearing phase in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The experiment used 36 crossbred lambs (cross: Ile de France × White Dorper × Texel) divided into two groups. The WCS group was supplemented with whole cottonseed (WCS), and controls had no supplementation. Body weight, blood collection, and fecal analysis of nematode eggs and Eimeria oocysts counting per gram of feces were performed for each animal within 84 days of experiment. The following serum analytes were determined: total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, haptoglobin, and 10 oxidative stress biomarkers: cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, thiol, uric acid, paraoxonase-1, total oxidant status, ferric-xylenol orange, advanced oxidation protein products, and reactive oxygen metabolites derived compounds. The inclusion of WCS suggested the benefit in controlling infection as well as inducing an increase in antioxidants and a decrease in oxidants in lambs naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites. The combination of WCS and ICLS could be a useful tool in controlling gastrointestinal parasite infection without affecting the production performance.
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    Carcass, meat quality traits, and economic analysis of Nellore bulls fed with finishing feedlot diets containing mechanically processed corn silage
    (2023-04-01) Costa, C. [UNESP]; Baldassini, W. A. [UNESP]; Leal, M. S. [UNESP]; Meirelles, P. R.L. [UNESP]; Castilhos, A. M. [UNESP]; Nascimento Júnior, N. G. [UNESP]; Silveira, J. P.F. [UNESP]; Pariz, C. M. [UNESP]; Roça, R. O. [UNESP]; Factori, M. A. [UNESP]; Silva, M. G.B. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Effects of mechanical processing (MP) of corn silage and its inclusion in feedlot diets on carcass and meat quality traits of Nellore (Bos indicus) were analyzed. Seventy-two bulls aged approximately 18 months and with an initial average body weight of 392.8 ± 22.3 kg were used. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, considering the concentrate–roughage (C:R) ratio (40:60 or 20:80), MP of silage and their interactions. After slaughter, hot carcass weight (HCW), pH, temperature, backfat thickness (BFT), and ribeye area (REA), yields of meat cuts (tenderloin, striploin, ribeye steak, neck steak, and sirloin cap), meat quality traits and economic analysis were evaluated. A lower final pH was found in the carcasses of animals consuming diets containing MP versus unprocessed silage (pH = 5.81 versus 5.93). Carcass variables (HCW, BFT, and REA) and meat cut yields were not affected by treatments. The C:R 20:80 increased the intramuscular fat (IMF) content by approximately 1%, without affecting moisture, ash, and protein contents. Meat/fat color (L*, a* and b*) and Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF) were similar among treatments. The results indicated that the MP of corn silage in finishing diets can provide better carcass pH results in Nellore bulls, without negatively influencing carcass weight, fatness, and meat tenderness (WBSF). The IMF content of meat was slightly improved using a C:R 20:80 and lower total costs per arroba produced (3.5%), daily costs per animal/day (4.2%), and cost per ton of feeds (5.15%) were found with MP silage.
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    Bos indicus Carcasses Suspended by the Pelvic Bone Require a Shorter Aging Time to Meet Consumer Expectations Regarding Meat Quality
    (2023-03-01) Baldassini, Welder [UNESP]; Coutinho, Marcelo; Rovadoscki, Gregori; Menezes, Bruna; Tagiariolli, Murilo [UNESP]; Torrecilhas, Juliana [UNESP]; Leonel, Júlia [UNESP]; Pereira, Guilherme [UNESP]; Curi, Rogério [UNESP]; Machado Neto, Otávio [UNESP]; Chardulo, Luis Artur [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Brazil Beef Quality Ltd
    This study evaluated the effects of hanging the carcass by the Achilles tendon (AS) versus pelvic suspension (PS) on meat quality traits. Bos indicus carcasses of two distinct biological types/sex categories comprised 10 young Brangus heifers and 10 Nellore bulls which were finished in a feedlot. Half-carcasses of each biological type/sex category were randomly hung using Achilles suspension (n = 20, AS) or pelvic suspension (n = 20, PS) for 48 h. At boning, longissimus samples were collected for evaluation by untrained consumers for tenderness, liking of flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability, after aging for 5 or 15 days. Objective samples were also tested for shear force (SF), Minolta meat colour, ultimate pH, cooking loss (CL) and purge loss (PL). There was a positive effect (p < 0.01) of PS on the sensory tenderness of Nellore bulls and Brangus heifers aged for 5 days compared to the AS method. At 15 days of aging, difference in sensory tenderness was observed (p < 0.05) in either group. Additionally, an interaction occurred between the suspension method and the aging of Nellore beef (p < 0.05) on liking of flavor, juiciness and overall acceptance, while the same effects were not observed for Brangus beef (p > 0.05). Nellore carcasses submitted to PS tended (p = 0.06) to produce more tender meat than those submitted to AS (SF = 44.62 ± 6.96 vs. 50.41 ± 8.04 N), and lower CL (p < 0.05) were found (27.7 vs. 30.9%). Carcass-suspension methods did not influence meat color, pH or PL in either group (p > 0.05). The PS contributes to improve the quality of Bos indicus bulls loins; in addition, this method allows a reduction in the aging time from 15 to 5 days, and it can be used to supply meat consumer markets which accept a certain level of eating quality.
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    Withdrawal of sodium monensin when associated with virginiamycin during adaptation and finishing periods on feedlot performance, feeding behavior, carcass, rumen, and cecum morphometrics characteristics of Nellore cattle
    (2023-01-24) Rigueiro, André L. N. [UNESP]; Pereira, Murilo C. S. [UNESP]; Silvestre, Antonio M. [UNESP]; Pinto, Ana Carolina J. [UNESP]; Felizari, Luana D. [UNESP]; Dias, Evandro F. F. [UNESP]; Demartini, Breno L. [UNESP]; Estevam, Daniela D. [UNESP]; Dellaqua, João V. T. [UNESP]; Souza, Katia L. R. [UNESP]; Silva, Leandro A. F. [UNESP]; Nunes, Ana B. P. C. [UNESP]; Souza, Johnny M. [UNESP]; Millen, Danilo D. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Feed additives such as monensin (MON) and virginiamycin (VM) are widely used in feedlots diets to maximize rumen fermentation. However, the knowledge about the effects of MON and VM combinations in specifics feedlot periods and the benefits of this association are still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of withdrawal of MON when associated with VM during the adaptation and finishing periods on feedlot performance of Nellore cattle. The experiment was designed as a completely randomized block replicated six times (four animals/pen) in which 120 Nellore bulls (378.4 ± 24.4 kg) were allocated in 30 pens and fed for 112 days according to the following treatments: (T1) MON during the entire feeding period; (T2) VM during the entire feeding period; (T3) MON+VM during the adaptation period and only VM during the finishing period 1 and 2; (T4) MON+VM during the entire feeding period; (T5) MON+VM during the adaptation and finishing period 1 and only VM during the finishing period 2. After 112 days on feed, no treatment effect was observed for DMI (P ≥ 0.12). However, bulls fed T5 had greater (P = 0.05) final BW and ADG when compared to T1, T2, and T4. Cattle from T3 and T5 groups presented heavier HCW (P = 0.05) than that fed T1, T2, and T4. Nellore bulls fed T1 and T5 had lower (P < 0.01) DMI variation than those receiving T2. The withdrawal of MON when associated with VM during the final third of the feedlot period improved overall final BW, ADG, and HCW when compared to bulls fed either MON or VM, but did not positively impact feedlot performance when compared to cattle that had MON withdrawn at the end of the adaptation period.
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    Phytase Supplementation under Commercially Intensive Rearing Conditions: Impacts on Nile Tilapia Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility
    (2023-01-01) Rodrigues, Edgar Junio Damasceno [UNESP]; Ito, Paulo Incane [UNESP]; Ribeiro, Lucas Franco Miranda [UNESP]; de Carvalho, Pedro Luiz Pucci Figueiredo [UNESP]; Xavier, William dos Santos [UNESP]; Guimarães, Matheus Gardim [UNESP]; Junior, Ademir Calvo Fernandes [UNESP]; Pezzato, Luiz Edivaldo [UNESP]; Barros, Margarida Maria [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Texas A&M University
    This study evaluated the effects of phytase supplementation on growth performance and apparent digestibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in a commercial fish farm setting. Nile tilapia (6300 male, 57.48 ± 1.04 g) were randomly stocked into 42 floating cages. The experimental design was completely randomized, comprising six treatments and seven replications. Fish were fed five phosphorus deficient plant-based diets with graded levels of phytase supplementation (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 UF kg−1) and an additional diet containing phosphorus supplementation to meet the requirement of this fish species (positive control). After 97 days of feeding, growth performance data were collected and 900 fish (500 ± 10 g) were relocated to 6 floating cages for the digestibility assessment. Quadratic polynomial regression analysis indicated 1537.5 and 1593.2 UF kg−1 as the optimum dietary levels for daily weight gain and feed conversion rate, respectively. Including 2000 UF kg−1 resulted in the higher dry matter, crude protein, energy, and ash apparent digestibility coefficient values. Therefore, phytase supplementation from 1500 to 2000 UF kg−1 is recommended to enhance growth performance and nutrient bioavailability of Nile tilapia reared according to industry practices.
  • ItemArtigo
    Sources and levels of copper and manganese supplementation influence performance, carcass traits, meat quality, tissue mineral content, and ileal absorption of broiler chickens
    (2023-02-01) Groff-Urayama, Priscila M. [UNESP]; Cruvinel, Jessica M. [UNESP]; Oura, Cássio Y. [UNESP]; dos Santos, Tatiane S. [UNESP]; de Lima-Krenchinski, Fernanda K. [UNESP]; Batistioli, Julianna S. [UNESP]; Rodrigues, Paola A.D. [UNESP]; Augusto, Karolina V.Z.; Han, Yanming; Sartori, José Roberto [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Trouw Nutrition R&D
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels and sources of Cu and Mn (sulfate or hydroxychloride - H) on growth performance, carcass traits, meat and skin quality, footpad dermatitis severity, litter quality, liver and plasma mineral content, and ileal mineral absorption. A total of 1,920 one-day-old male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were assigned randomly to one of 2 × 3+2 factorially arranged treatments: CuH (15 and 150 ppm) × MnH (40, 80, 120 ppm) + 15 ppm Cu Sulfate with 80 ppm Mn Sulfate (control 1) or 150 ppm Cu Sulfate with 120 ppm Mn sulfate (control 2) for 42 d. Each treatment consisted of 8 replicates of 30 birds. At 42-day-old were slaughtered for carcass yield and meat quality analyses. At 43-day-old, it was determined the apparent ileal absorption of minerals and the concentration of Cu and Mn in the liver and plasma. The resistance and elasticity of the skin, and footpad dermatitis severity were also evaluated. The level 150 ppm CuH improved the FCR compared to the 15 ppm CuH and 15 ppm Cu Sulfate level. Broilers fed diets containing 150 ppm CuH showed higher breast yield compared to those fed diets containing 15 ppm. Breast yield was positively influenced by the inclusion of 40 ppm MnH. There was an interaction between the CuH and the MnH for skin elasticity, and the highest elasticity was found when the supplementation levels were 150 ppm CuH and 40 ppm MnH. High levels of copper decreased the incidence of footpad dermatitis. The hydroxychloride source determined a higher mineral concentration in the liver and plasma and greater apparent ileal absorption of Cu and Mn. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 150 ppm CuH and 40 or 80 ppm MnH enhance breast yield and improves skin resistance. The inclusion of 150 ppm CuH has the possibility to improve the FCR and decrease leg injuries. Furthermore, the hydroxychloride source seems to be more bioavailable than the sulfate source.
  • ItemArtigo
    Plant-based polymer as a thermoresistant carrier of phytase in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) diets
    (2023-02-01) Rodrigues, Edgar Junio Damasceno [UNESP]; Carvalho, Pedro Luiz Pucci Figueiredo de [UNESP]; Xavier, William dos Santos [UNESP]; Guimarães, Matheus Gardim [UNESP]; Vicente, Igor Simões Tiagua [UNESP]; Barros, Margarida Maria [UNESP]; Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira [UNESP]; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães [UNESP]; Alarcon, Rafael Turra [UNESP]; Gaglieri, Caroline [UNESP]; Bannach, Gilbert [UNESP]; Pezzato, Luiz Edivaldo [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    A biodegradable soybean oil-based polymer produced following the Green Chemistry principles, was assessed as a thermoresistant vehicle of phytase aiming to improve the enzyme stability during fish diet processing. Juvenile Nile tilapia (70 ± 4.3 g) were submitted to a digestibility assay designed in a factorial model (3 ×2) to assess the polymer efficiency. The treatments comprised the combination of three phytase inclusion methods with two feed processing methods. The inclusion methods of phytase were: CPP- coating post processing, in which the enzyme was spread on top of pellets after processing, PAE- polymer associated to enzyme, which was adsorbed by the polymer and included in the ingredients mash prior feed processing and NE- no enzyme inclusion, playing a control role as phytase was not included. The feed processing methods were extrusion (120 °C) or pelleting (40 °C), exposing the polymer to different temperatures. Phytase was supplemented at 1500 units kg−1 using the CPP or PAE methods. There was a significant interaction for the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) values of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and Ash (P < 0.05). CPP resulted in higher ADC values for P and Ca, compared to PAE and NE in extruded diets (P < 0.05). The PAE method resulted in higher ADC values of P, Ca, and Ash than NE in extruded diets (P < 0.05). In pelleted diets, PAE resulted in higher ADC values for P and Ca, and a similar ADCAsh in comparison to CPP (P < 0.05). As verified in extruded diets data, the polymer partially protected phytase from heat denaturation, resulting in higher ADC values in comparison to NE (P < 0.05). The polymer improved phytase effects in pelleted diets probably by reducing degradation in fish stomach. These results suggest that the polymer may be a potential protective carrier of phytase and other thermolabile additives in extruded and pelleted diets.
  • ItemArtigo
    Comparative study of cattle tick resistance using generalized linear mixed models
    (2019-01-01) Maiorano, Amanda Marchi [UNESP]; Mota, Thiago Santos [UNESP]; Verdugo, Ana Carolina [UNESP]; Faria, Ricardo Antonio da Silva [UNESP]; da Silva, Beatriz Pressi Molina [UNESP]; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; Silva, Josineudson Augusto II de Vasconcelos [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA); Instituto de Zootecnia - IZ
    Comparison of tick resistance in Bos taurus indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus taurus (Simmental and Caracu) subspecies was investigated utilizing generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with Poisson and Negative binomial distributions. Nelore animals (NE) are known to present greater resistance than B. t. taurus. Difference between tick resistance in Simmental (SI) and Caracu (CA) breeds has never been reported previously. Three artificial tick infestations were conducted to evaluate tick resistance in these breeds. The statistic point of the present study was to show alternative models for the evaluation of tick count data, the GLMMs. Analysis for tick resistance by GLMM with Negative binomial distribution has never been assessed previously. The analyses were performed by the use of the PROC GLIMMIX procedure of the SAS program. The results showed that GLMM with Negative binomial distribution is appropriated to evaluate tick count data with excess of zero observations avoiding overdispersion problems. Finally, considering multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni test, different pattern of tick infestation was observed for the studied breeds, suggesting that NE is the most resistant breed followed by CA.
  • ItemArtigo
    Impact of multicarbohydrase and phytase on apparent and standardized digestibility, energy, and nutrient balance in broilers fed sunflower meal
    (2022-12-01) Araujo, Robert Guaracy Aparecido Cardoso [UNESP]; Vela, Connie Gallardo; Sartori, José Roberto [UNESP]; da Trindade Neto, Messias Alves; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidad Cientifica del Sur; Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
    The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) (trial 1) and the apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of the amino acids (AAs) (trial 2) in sunflower meal (SM) were evaluated with the addition of exogenous multicarbohydrase (MC) and phytase (Phy). A total of 80 28-day-old broilers were allotted in a completely randomized design to receive treatments up to 35 days of age. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to determine the enzyme effects, on the ATTD of dry matter, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, and fibre, energy use, and the AID and SID of AA, in five replicate cages. Synergic effect was identified between MC and Phy on the ATTD of minerals and fibre. The same benefit occurred with the isolated inclusion of MC on the ATTD of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy of SM. The effects of enzyme inclusion on the AID and SID of AAs in SM, established by comparing the means, suggested a higher effect to the addition of MC + Phy combibation. Supplementation of MC or combination with MC and Phy was a viable alternative to increase the ATTD of nutrients and energy. The addition MC + Phy higher AID and SID of AA from SM.
  • ItemArtigo
    Correlation of shear strength and physicochemical properties as a criterion for the selection of accessions of Paspalum grasses
    (2023-01-01) Barros, Juliana da Silva [UNESP]; Gomes, Vinicius Carreteiro [UNESP]; Meirelles, Paulo Roberto de Lima [UNESP]; Matta, Frederico De Pina; Pariz, Cristiano Magalhães [UNESP]; de Castilhos, André Michel [UNESP]; Gomes, Tiago Gutemberg de Jesus [UNESP]; Costa, Ciniro [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
    The present study aimed to evaluate the application of shear strength and its correlations with leaf blade morphological and chemical variables as a tool capable of detecting differences between species and accessions of the genus Paspalum in the early stages of a forage plant breeding programme. A total of 13 Paspalum accessions from two species (Paspalum atratum and Paspalum regnellii) were subjected to analyses of shear strength, which also analysed the neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin, and digestibility. Morphological measurements were also performed to standardize the shear strength per unit of leaf tissue. The experimental design consisted of complete randomized blocks, with four replications and eight cuts performed over 2 years. Shear strength was evaluated for its potential usefulness for detecting differences between accessions of the same species and the correlations of accessions. It was possible to use the shear strength measured with the texturometer to detect differences between species and accessions of the Paspalum genus. The results showed significant correlations of shear strength and neutral detergent fibre (r = 0.49), and negative correlations were found between digestibility and shear strength (r =-0.55). These correlations were maintained when the strength variables were standardized according to the morphological variables. Thus, shear strength can be used in the initial stages of the selection of species of the genus Paspalum.
  • ItemResumo
    Use of Mycotoxin Deactivator Increases Productive Performance by Feedlot Cattle fed a Natural Contaminated Diet
    (Oxford Univ Press Inc, 2022-10-01) Gouvea, Daniel I. C. G. [UNESP]; Niehues, Maria B. [UNESP]; Matos, Isabelle E. de; Perdigao, Alexandre; Carvalho, Victor Valerio de; Acedo, Tiago S. S.; Turner, Tyler; Martins, Cyntia L. L. [UNESP]; Arrigoni, Mario B. D. B. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS); DSM Nutr Prod; DSM Nutr Prod Brazil AS
  • ItemResumo
    Effects of Minerals Source Supplementation on Performance and Carcass Production by Feedlot Cattle
    (Oxford Univ Press Inc, 2022-10-01) Niehues, Maria B. [UNESP]; Perdigao, Alexandre; Matos, Isabelle E. de; Gouvea, Daniel I. C. G. [UNESP]; Carvalho, Victor Valerio de; Acedo, Tiago S. S.; Tamassia, Luis M.; Martins, Cyntia L. L. [UNESP]; Arrigoni, Mario B. D. B. [UNESP]; Gouvea, Vinicius; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); DSM Nutr Prod; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS); DSM Nutr Prod Brazil AS; Texas A&M AgriLife Res & Extens