Bacterial Pathogens Related to Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in Individuals With Cleft Palate: Bacteriological Culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction
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Objective: To characterize the microbial etiology of chronic suppurative otitis media comparing the methods of classical bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction.Design/Setting/Patients: Bacteriological analysis by classical culture and by molecular polymerase chain reaction of 35 effusion otitis samples from patients with cleft lip and palate attending the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies of the University of Sao Paulo, Bauru, Brazil.Interventions: Collection of clinical samples of otitis by effusion through the external auditory tube.Main Outcome Measure: Otolaryngologic diagnosis of chronic suppurative otitis media.Results: Positive cultures were obtained from 83% of patients. Among the 31 bacterial lineages the following were isolated. In order of decreasing frequency: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (54.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%), and Enterococcus faecalis (19.2%). No anaerobes were isolated by culture. The polymerase chain reaction was positive for one or more bacteria investigated in 97.1% of samples. Anaerobe lineages were detected by the polymerase chain reaction method, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius.Conclusions: Patients with cleft lip and palate with chronic suppurative otitis media presented high frequency of bacterial infection in the middle ear. The classical bacteriological culture did not detect strict anaerobes, whose presence was identified by the polymerase chain reaction method.