Adaptations to salinity and osmoregulation in the frog Thoropa-miliaris (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae)
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The leptodactylid frog Thoropa miliaris, from SE Brazil, may live on rocky marine shore, where it thrives on terrestrial and marine invertebrates, and often moves into the intertidal zone. The osmotic concentration of plasma, muscle homogenate and urine of the frogs freshly captured on the rocky shore was higher than those collected far from the sea, or kept in captivity for 6-8 months on a diet free of marine items. Increase in body urea and sodium concentrations, reported in amphibians as a response to hyperosmotic environment, was not found in T. miliaris. Osmotic concentration of the frogs from rocky shore was variable though, ranging from 400 to 980 mOsm/l. Such variation in the osmotic concentration may reflect a territorial behavior for foraging sites, which would result in higher intake of marine items by individuals living closer to intertidal zone.