Mild gestational hyperglycaemia as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes
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Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in a cohort of pregnant women with a wide range of glucose tolerance, pre-pregnancy risk factors for MS during pregnancy and the effects of MS in the occurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes.Research Design and Methods One hundred and thirty six women with positive screening for gestational diabetes (GDM) were classified by two diagnostic methods: glycaemic profile and 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as normoglycaemic, mild gestational hyperglycaemic, GDM, and overt GDM. Markers of insulin resistance were measured between 24-28 and 36th week of gestation, and 6 weeks after delivery.Results The prevalence of MS was 0; 20.0; 23.5 and 36.4% in normoglycaemic, mild hyperglycaemic, GDM and overt GDM groups, respectively. Previous history of GDM with or without insulin use, body mass index (BMI) >= 25, hypertension, family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives, non-Caucasian ethnicity, history of prematurity and polyhydramnios were statistically significant pre-pregnancy predictors for MS in the index pregnancy, that by its turn increased the occurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes (p = 0.01).Conclusions The prevalence of MS increases with the worsening of glucose tolerance and is an independent predictor of adverse perinatal outcomes; impaired glycaemic profile identifies pregnancies with important metabolic abnormalities that are linked to the occurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes even in the presence of a normal OGTT, in patients that are not currently classified as having GDM. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.