Detection of hormones in surface and drinking water in Brazil by LC-ESI-MS/MS and ecotoxicological assessment with Daphnia magna
Data de publicação2015-06-01
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The growing use of pharmaceutical drug is mainly due to several diseases in human and in animal husbandry. As these drugs are discharged into waterways via wastewater, they cause a major impact on the environment. Many of these drugs are hormones; in which even at low concentrations can alter metabolic and physiological functions in many organisms. Hormones were found in surface water, groundwater, soil, and sediment at concentrations from nanograms to milligrams per liter of volume-quantities known to cause changes in the endocrine system of aquatic organisms. This study aimed to develop a methodology for hormone detection (estriol, estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol, progesterone, and testosterone) on surface and treated water samples. Sample toxicity was assessed by ecotoxicology tests using Daphnia magna. A liquid chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI-MS/ MS) was used for the analysis. The results showed that samples were contaminated by the hormones estriol, estrone, progesterone, 17 beta-estradiol, and 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol during the sampling period, and the highest concentrations measured were 90, 28, 26, 137, and 194 ng.L-1, respectively. This indicates the inflow of sewage containing these hormones at some points in the Piracicaba River in the State of Sao Paulo-Brazil. Results indicated little toxicity of the hormone estriol in D. magna, indicating that chronic studies with this microcrustacean are necessary.