Clinical and laboratory characteristics of pregnant women with preeclampsia versus gestational hypertension
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To compare clinical and laboratory characteristics, obstetric and perinatal outcomes of patients with pre-eclampsia versus gestational hypertension. A retrospective study was carried out to analyze medical records of patients diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension whose pregnancies were resolved within a period of 5 years, for a total of 419 cases. We collected clinical and laboratory data, obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Comparisons between groups were performed using the test suitable for the variable analyzed: unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney U test or χ2 test, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. Were evaluated 199 patients in the gestational hypertension group (GH) and 220 patients in the pre-eclampsia group (PE). Mean body mass index was 34.6 kg/m2 in the GH group and 32.7 kg/m2 in the PE group, with a significant difference between groups. The PE group showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and higher rates of abnormal values in the laboratory tests, although the mean values were within the normal range. Cesarean section was performed in 59.1% of cases of PE and in 47.5% of the GH group; and perinatal outcomes in terms of gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower in the PE group. Women with gestational hypertension exhibit epidemiological characteristics of patients at risk for chronic diseases. Patients with pre-eclampsia present clinical and laboratory parameters of greater severity, higher rates of cesarean delivery and worse maternal and perinatal outcomes.