Homogenous demineralized dentin matrix and platelet-rich plasma for bone tissue engineering in cranioplasty of diabetic rabbits: biochemical, radiographic, and histological analysis
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This study evaluated the effects of homogenous demineralized dentin matrix (HDDM) slices and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in surgical defects created in the parietal bones of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits, treated with a guided bone regeneration technique. Biochemical, radiographic, and histological analyses were performed. Sixty adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into five groups of 12: normoglycaemic (control, C), diabetic (D), diabetic with a PTFE membrane (DM), diabetic with a PTFE membrane and HDDM slices (DM-HDDM), and diabetic with PTFE membrane and PRP (DM-PRP). The quantity and quality of bone mass was greatest in the DM-HDDM group (respective radiographic and histological analyses: at 15 days, 71.70±16.50 and 50.80±1.52; 30 days, 62.73±16.51 and 54.20±1.23; 60 days, 63.03±11.04 and 59.91±3.32; 90 days, 103.60±24.86 and 78.99±1.34), followed by the DM-PRP group (respective radiographic and histological analyses: at 15 days 23.00±2.74 and 20.66±7.45; 30 days 31.92±6.06 and 25.31±5.59; 60 days 25.29±16.30 and 46.73±2.07; 90 days 38.10±14.04 and 53.38±9.20). PRP greatly enhanced vascularization during the bone repair process. Abnormal calcium metabolism was statistically significant in the DM-PRP group (P<0.001) for all four time intervals studied, especially when compared to the DM-HDDM group. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in the DM-HDDM group (P<0.001) in comparison to the C, D, and DM-PRP groups, confirming the findings of intense osteoblastic activity and increased bone mineralization. Thus, HDDM promoted superior bone architectural microstructure in bone defects in diabetic rabbits due to its effective osteoinductive and osteoconductive activity, whereas PRP stimulated angiogenesis and red bone marrow formation.
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