Comparative genomics analyses of citrus-associated bacteria
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Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c (XF-9a5c) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (XAC) are bacteria that infect citrus plants. Sequencing of the genomes of these strains is complete and comparative analyses are now under way with the genomes of other bacteria of the same genera. In this review, we present an overview of this comparative genomic work. We also present a detailed genomic comparison between XF-9a5a and XAC. Based on this analysis, genes and operons were identified that might be relevant for adaptation to citrus. XAC has two copies of a type II secretion system, a large number of cell wall-degrading enzymes and sugar transporters, a complete energy metabolism, a whole set of avirulence genes associated with a type III secretion system, and a complete flagellar and chemotatic system. By contrast, XF-9a5c possesses more genes involved with type IV pili biosynthesis than does XAC, contains genes encoding for production of colicins, and has 4 copies of Type I restriction/modification system while XAC has only one.