Skin graft epithelialization in rabbit fresh wounds treated with amniotic membrane and/or laser therapy
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Skin grafting is a simple surgical technique and useful to repair wounds, especially those where there is a difficulty to apply primary closure skin or other reconstructive techniques. However, for graft survival a healthy wound bed and the presence of an exuberant granulation tissue are necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the application of amniotic membrane and laser therapy as potential healing stimulants in grafts applied in wounds without granulation tissue. For this, we used 42 rabbits divided into four treatment groups, control group (CG), membrane group (MG), laser group (LG) and membrane and laser group (MLG), submitted to macroscopic and microscopic evaluation. The macroscopic examination showed that the patients of the groups where the amniotic membrane was used in order to stimulate re-epithelialization (MG and MLG) presented evidences associated with severe inflammatory reaction, graft integration failure and consequent necrosis. LG patients apparently had the best graph aspect in the last valuation date. Microscopic examination showed intense integration of the graft to the dermis, high re-epithelialization level, and scarce inflammatory cells in the graft site of LG patients. The opposite was observed in patients in the MG and MLG groups, where a rejection of the membrane was observed. Finally, collagen formation was not correlated with other factors such as inflammation and necrosis in any of the treatment groups. We can conclude that laser therapy was effective, contributing to the healing process and integration of the graft. Thus, canine amniotic membrane should not be used for this purpose because it causes intense inflammatory reaction besides avoiding graft nutrition.