Lipid profiles of follicular fluid from cows submitted to ovarian superstimulation
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Ovarian superstimulation with exogenous gonadotropins has been extensively used to produce in vivo derived embryos for embryo transfer in cattle. This process modifies the antral follicle microenvironment and affects oocyte and embryo quality as well the differentiation of granulosa cells. Lipids play significant roles in the cell, such as energy storage, cell structure, and fine-tuning of the physical properties and functions of biological membranes. The phospholipid (PL) contents as well as the effects of super stimulatory treatments on the PL profile of follicular fluid from cows, however, remain unknown. Therefore, to gain insight into the effects of superstimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; P36 protocol) or FSH combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; P-36/eCG protocol) on the profile and abundance of PL from cows submitted or not submitted to superstimulatory protocols, were treated with these two superstimulatory protocols. As a control, non-superstimulated cows were only submitted to estrous synchronization. The follicular fluid was aspirated, the remaining cells removed and the follicular fluid stored at -80 degrees C until extraction. The lipid screening was performed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and this technique allowed the identification of sphingomyelins (SM) and phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphoethanolamines (PE). The relative abundance of the ions observed in the three experimental groups was analyzed by multivariate and univariate statistical models. The phospholipid SM (16:0) and PC (36:4) and/or PC (34:1) were less (P < 0.05) abundant in the P-36 group compared to the control or P-36/eCG groups. However, the PC (34:2) was more (P < 0.05) abundant in both group of superstimulated cows compared to the control. In summary, ovarian superstimulation seems to modulate the PL content of bovine follicular fluid with a significant increase in PC (34:2), which jointly with others PC and SM, seems to offer a suitable biomarker involved with reproductive processes successful as ovary superstimulation response and embryo development. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Inc.
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