New Electrochemical Flow-Cell Configuration Integrated into a Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Platform: Improving Analytical Application in the Presence of Air Bubbles
MetadataShow full item record
A newly configured electrochemical flow cell to be used for (end-channel) amperometric detection in a microfluidic device is presented. The design was assembled to place the reference electrode in a separated compartment, isolated from the flow in the microchannel, while the working and counter electrodes remain in direct contact with both compartments. Moreover, a three-dimensional coil-shaped microfluidic device was fabricated using a nonconventional protocol. Both devices working in association enabled us to solve the drawback caused by the discrete injection when the automatic micropipette was used. The high performance of the proposed electrochemical flow cell was demonstrated after in situ modifying the surface of the platinum working electrode with surfactant (e.g., using Tween 20 at 0.10%). As the reference electrode remained out of contact with the flowing solution, there was no trouble by air bubble formation (generated by accidental insertion or by presence of surfactants) throughout the measurements. This device was characterized regarding its analytical performance by evaluating the amperometric detection of acetaminophen, enabling determination from 6.60 to 66.0 mu mol L-1. This issue is important since at high concentration (e.g., as assessed in clinical analysis) the acetaminophen is known to passivate the working electrode surfaces by electrogenerated products, impairing the accuracy of the electrochemical measurements.