Soil management of sugarcane fields affecting CO2 fluxes
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The harvesting system of green sugarcane, characterized by mechanized harvesting and no crop burning, affects soil quality by increasing the remaining straw left on the soil surface after harvesting, thus, contributing to the improvement of physical, chemical, and microbiological soil attributes, influencing CO2 fluxes. This study aimed to evaluate CO2 fluxes and their relation to soil properties in sugarcane crops under different harvesting managements: burned (B), Green harvesting for 5 years (G-5) and Green harvesting for ten years (G-10). For this, a 1 ha sampling grid with 30 points was installed in each area, all located in the Northeast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In each point, CO2 fluxes were measured and the soil was sampled to analyze the microbial biomass, physical (soil moisture and temperature, mean weight diameter, bulk density, clay, macroporosity and microporosity) and chemical characterization (pH, organic C, base saturation and P). The CO2 fluxes were divided into four quantitative criteria: high, moderate, low and very low from the Statistical Division (mean, first quartile, median and third quartile) and the other data were classified according this criterion. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify the main soil attributes that influence CO2 fluxes. The results showed that G-10 CO2 fluxes were 28 and 41 % higher than those in the G-5 and B treatments, respectively. The PCA analysis showed that macroporosity was the main soil attribute that influenced the high CO2 fluxes.