Phytochemical analysis and acaricidal activity of Aloe arborescens Mill. extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus
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The indiscriminate use of chemical acaricides has allowed Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to develop resistance to several active principles. However, botanical extracts have been tested as an alternative method to control those ticks. This experiment studied the chemical fingerprint and acaricidal effect of fresh and dry Aloe arborescens Mill. extracts on R. (B.) microplus. The acaricidal activity of extracts was assessed using in vitro assays with engorged females, and phytochemical characterization was performed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that fresh and dry A. arborescens extracts prepared with the solvents pure ethanol, ethanol-dichloromethane binary mixture, and ethanol-dichloromethane-acetone ternary mixture, contained water-soluble tannins and had a strong effect on the reproductive parameters of R. (B.) microplus demonstrated by a marked decreased in the number of eggs laid and in the larvae hatching rate (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001). In conclusion, A. arborescens Mill. has components with acaricidal activity against R. (B.) microplus, and phytotherapy with extracts of this plant may be used as an alternative method of R. (B.) microplus control.