Soil microbiome and their effects on nutrient management for plants
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The soil microbiome is a diverse system composed of microorganisms with different functions. Microorganisms known as plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) can help plants with nutrient uptake and consequently with crop yields. From this class of microorganisms, we can isolate nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB), phosphorus-solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs), and the microbes that are able to produce phytohormones. The use of these microorganisms in improving nutrient uptake by plants has been acceptable because of reduced costs and the safety of application for humans and the environment. It is for this reason that inoculant products have been developed. During the process of inoculant development, it is possible to use molecular biology techniques, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This technique helps with the identification of potential microorganisms adapted for different conditions and crops. Moreover, these microorganisms can be used in degradable areas or as pathogen controls. It is also important to consider the siderophore, which is a biological molecule produced by various bacteria, and which has an immense application in agriculture. Another important symbiosis that occurs is realized by mycorrhizas, which are essential for transferring nutrients and water from the soil to plants.