Brief overview of the brazilian legislation and the radioactive wastes geologic repository project
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This chapter brings a brief nuclear legislation scenario in force in Brazil and the competences of several bodies which control and regulate the nuclear industry. It describes the various roles of such bodies and the Brazilian desire to give a final destination/disposal to radioactive waste through the conception of a geologic repository which is under way. The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 is the highest law of the country and it states that it is privately to the Federal Government to legislate on nuclear activities of any kind and once established the monopoly of the Federal Government to legislate on nuclear activities, there was a need to create bodies and their responsibilities for the exercise of that monopoly. Thus the main entities responsible for the enforcement of such control are the National Commission for Nuclear Energy - CNEN (Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear), Nuclear Industries of Brazil - INB (Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil) and Eletronuclear. The Act n. 4.118/62 - amended by Acts No. 6.189/74 and No. 6.571/78 created the CNEN, as a governmental agency, which according to its article 3, is an entity under the Ministry of Science and Technology. On December 28, 1989, CNEN, through the Act 14/89, issued the regulation No. 6.06, on the selection and choice for radioactive waste disposal sites. Such Act set the criteria and the studies for site selection that shall be suitable as waste repositories, in order to ensure the safe containment of it thus protecting the humankind and the environment. Thus, CNEN is the competent authority for issuing licenses for such repositories/storages, regarding the use, radioactive waste storage and transportation, radiation protection and safety of these facilities. Such activities should be conducted in accordance with criteria, procedures and standards established by CNEN as reported in this chapter.