South American fish for continental aquaculture
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The South American continent is known for its high production and exports in fisheries and aquaculture, but has not reached its full potential in fish farming. The latest data on fish production in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela were explored in this review. Aspects of biology, production, market and health of the species most produced in South America are described in detail. These species include the round fish (Colossoma spp., Piaractus spp. and hybrids) and catfish (Pseudoplatystoma spp. and hybrids), in addition to the promising pirarucu Arapaima gigas, yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae and silver catfish Rhamdia quelen. Among the countries mentioned, Chile and Brazil are two of the largest intensive fish producers in the world. Chile relies primarily on marine fish, whereas Brazil is prominent for continental production. Special emphasis is given to the black pacu Colossoma macropomum because it is a commonly farmed fish in South American countries and offers several desirable productive characteristics (domesticated, omnivorous and easy to reproduce). Furthermore, this fish has the greatest potential to compete economically with tilapia production in South America. The production of native fish is currently overtaking the production of exotic species in some countries, which is considered a milestone for South American aquaculture. Regarding diseases, the main pathogens are similar to those observed throughout the world, such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, different species of monogeneans and trichodinids, and the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. Local pathogens, such as the parasites Perulernaea gamitanae and Goezia spinulosa, are also concerning.