Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in healthy equine superficial digital flexor tendon: A study of the local inflammatory response
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The superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is a structure frequently affected by injuries in high-performance athletic horses, and there are limited therapeutic options. Regenerative medicine has evolved significantly in treating different illnesses. However, understanding the cellular behaviour during mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation in healthy tissues is not fully known yet. To address the inflammatory response induced by allogeneic MSC transplantation, this study evaluated the local inflammatory response after the application of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) in the equine tendon compared to an autologous transplant and the control group. Eighteen thoracic limbs (TL) in nine animals were divided into three groups and subjected to the application of AT-MSCs in the healthy tendon. In the allogeneic group (Gallog), the animals received an allogeneic AT-MSC application in the TL. The autologous group (Gauto) received an application of autologous cells in the TL, and in the control group (Gcont), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was applied. There were no significant differences among the evaluated groups in the physical, morphological, thermography, and ultrasonography analyses. A higher number of CD3-positive lymphocytes was observed in the Gauto group compared to the control (P < 0.05). Additionally, we did not observe different expressions of CD172 and microvascular density among the groups. The allogeneic transplantation of AT-MSCs did not result in an adverse or inflammatory reaction that compromised the use of these cells in this experiment. Their behaviour was similar to that of autologous transplantation.
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