Influence of skeletal muscle mass and fat mass on the metabolic and inflammatory profile in sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic overfat elderly
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Background: Sarcopenic elderly present low muscle mass and strength, however, it is not clear if the inflammatory and metabolic profile is more related to low lean mass or high fat mass in sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic overfat elderly. Aim: To verify the difference in inflammatory and metabolic responses in sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic overfat elderly and the relationship between these markers, body composition, and strength in this population. Methods: Fifty-seven elderly were divided into two groups: sarcopenic (n = 30) and non-sarcopenic (n = 27). Body composition was evaluated with octopolar bioimpedance. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, cortisol, leptin, adiponectin, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were assessed. The handgrip test was used to evaluate strength. Results: When comparing the inflammatory profile, sarcopenic individuals showed greater adiponectin concentration (p = 0.019), adiponectin/fat mass ratio (p < 0.001), adiponectin/visceral fat (p < 0.001), and higher PAI-1 (p = 0.019) than non-sarcopenic overfat elderly. After adjusting the inflammatory profile by skeletal muscle mass the significant differences between groups were maintained (p < 0.05) but no significant differences between groups were observed when adjusting by fat mass, despite a tendency to a significant difference for adiponectin concentration (p = 0.06). In addition, after adjusting leptin by fat mass there was a statistically significant lower concentration in the sarcopenic compared to non-sarcopenic overfat elderly. Conclusion: Non-sarcopenic overfat elderly presented lower anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic responses than sarcopenic elderly. Furthermore, fat mass but not skeletal muscle mass seem to change these responses.
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