Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves bone formation in the alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction in rats
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Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mate tea (MT) [Ilex paraguariensis] on alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction. Materials and methods: Sixteen male rats were divided into MT and control groups. MT was administered by intragastric gavage at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days before and 28 days after right maxillary incisor extraction. The control group received an equal volume of water. Histopathological and histometric analysis of the neoformed bone area and osteocyte density were performed, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin (OCN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the alveolar socket. Calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in plasma, whereas TRAP activity was determined in serum. Results: Histometry evidenced an increase in bone area (P < 0.0001) and osteocyte density (P < 0.0001). MT increased immunolabeling of MnSOD (P < 0.001), OCN (P < 0.0001), RANKL (P < 0.001), OPG (P < 0.0001), and TRAP (P < 0.001). Calcium and phosphorus concentrations did not differ between the groups. In addition, MT enhanced ALP (P < 0.05) and TRAP (P < 0.0001) activities. MT increased the TAC (P < 0.001), whereas it reduced MDA concentrations (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: MT increases bone area and osteocyte density in the alveolar socket healing on day 28 after tooth extraction. Clinical relevance: Regular MT ingestion improves the antioxidant defenses and bone formation, which is beneficial for alveolar socket bone healing after tooth extraction.
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