Tissue reaction after subcutaneous implants of a new material composed of ethylene-vinyl acetate and starch for future use as a biomaterial
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This study aimed to evaluate the tissue reaction of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) in 4 different compositions and processing: EVA foamed at high pressure with ultrasound (EVACU); EVA with 15% starch foamed at high pressure with ultrasound (EVAMCU); EVA with 15% starch foamed at high pressure without ultrasound and EVA foamed at high pressure without ultrasound as future use as a porous scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the influence of starch, reducing the diameter of pores. The number of open pores was also reduced with the addition of starch. The ultrasound applied during the manufacturing of composites does not affect these characteristics. Eighteen rats were used to test the tissue reaction of materials and PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), proven biocompatible material. After 7, 15, and 60 days of surgery, the materials were removed and processed for microscopic evaluation and counting of the inflammatory infiltrate. The data shows inflammatory reaction similar to PTFE. However, in the quantitative analysis at 60 days, the EVACU and EVAMCU showed less quantity of mononuclear cells (p<0.05). Thus, the results suggest that the use of ultrasound in the production method (EVA) seems to have improved cell behavior regarding the reduction of infiltration over the period, with tissue response equivalent to the PTFE.