SELECTIVITY OF INSECTICIDES TO Encarsia hispida (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)
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The use of non-selective insecticides in agricultural production can reduce or eliminate biological agents that regulate insects that are undesirable to humans in production processes. Here, the toxicity of synthetic products on the parasitoid Encarsia hispida was evaluated, the host of which is the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B, found on cotton plants. The study was carried out using bioassays, in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme. Pupae and adults of E. hispida were used in the bioassays, which had been sprayed with various chemicals (thiamethoxam, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, and pyriproxyfen) at different concentrations (1.0 g L-1, 1.0 mL L-1, 4.0 mL L-1, and 2.5 mL L-1). The control treatment was distilled water. Chemicals were topically placed in the dorsal region of the tegument of 1 and 3-day old pupae. Then, between 1 and 15-days of emergence of adult parasitoids, residual contact bioassay were used to determine the toxicity of the insecticides. The insecticides thiamethoxam and imidacloprid were harmless to the pupal stage of E. hispida, but were harmful to the adult stage. The insecticides deltamethrin and pyriproxyfen were harmful to both pupal and adult stages of E. hispida.