High-fat diet suppresses the positive effect of creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle function by reducing protein expression of IGF-PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway
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High-fat (HF) diets in combination with sedentary lifestyle represent one of the major public health concerns predisposing to obesity and diabetes leading to skeletal muscle atrophy, decreased fiber diameter and muscle mass with accumulation of fat tissue resulting in loss of muscle strength. One strategy to overcome the maleficent effects of HF diet is resistance training, a strategy used to improve muscle mass, reverting the negative effects on obesity-related changes in skeletal muscle. Together with resistance training, supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CrM) in the diet has been used to improve muscle mass and strength. Creatine is a non-essential amino acid that is directly involved in the cross-bridge cycle providing a phosphate group to ADP during the initiation of muscle contraction. Besides its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects CrM also upregulates IGF-1 resulting in hyperthophy with an increase in muscle function. However, it is unknown whether CrM supplementation during resistance training would revert the negative effects of high-fat diet on the muscle performance. During 8 weeks we measured muscle performance to climb a 1.1m and 80 degrees ladder with increasing load on trained rats that had received standard diet or high-fat diet, supplemented or not with CrM. We observed that the CrM supplementation up-regulated IGF-1 and phospho-AKT protein levels, suggesting an activation of the IGF1P13K-Akt/PKB-mTOR pathway. Moreover, despite the CrM supplementation, HF diet downregulated several proteins of the IGF1-PI3K-Akt/PKB-mTOR pathway, suggesting that diet lipid content is crucial to maintain or improve muscle function during resistance training.