Effect of Withania somnifera on gentamicin induced renal lesions in rats
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Gentamicin induced renal complications are well known in humans and animals. Medicinal properties of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Solanaceae, are recognized to improve renal functions. However, the pharmacological function of W. somnifera is not completely understood. We sought to unravel medicinal therapeutic function of W. somnifera on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in wistar rats. Twenty-four adult male wistar rats evenly divided into four groups to evaluate in vivo nephroprotective and nephrocurative function of W. somnifera in gentamicin induced nephrotoxic rats. Experimental design as follows: Group I, saline control for 21 days; Group II, gentamicin nephrotoxic control for eight days; Group III, alcoholic extract of W. somnifera for 13 days + simultaneous administration of gentamicin and W. somnifera, from day 14 to 21 (nephroprotective) and Group IV, gentamicin for 8 days + alcoholic extract of W. somnifera from day 9 to 21 (nephrocurative). End of experiment, respective serum and kidney tissue samples used to analyze renal function. Withania somnifera as a nephroprotective and nephrocurative molecule significantly restore the renal function on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. This phenomenon is accompanied with significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen, creatine, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, albumin, total protein, calcium, potassium and kidney malondialdehyde concentrations. Additionally, W. somnifera significantly increased antioxidant activities of glutathione and superoxide dismutase to protect renal tissue damage from gentamicin in wistar rats. Over all, W. somnifera treated nephroprotective animal shows improved recovery compared to nephrocuartive. The nephroprotective or nephrocurative effect of W. somnifera could be due to inherent antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging principle(s). In the near future, biologically active compounds of W. somnifera (withanolides) could appear as a novel therapeutic molecule for renal disorders. (C) 2019 Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.