Climate change evidence in Brazil from Köppen's climate annual types frequency
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This article proposes to use the Köppen classification to evidence climate change in Brazil. To do so, the average monthly temperature and precipitation data were computed for a set of 208 stations, representative of the climatic diversity of Brazil for the period from 1964 to 2015. The originality of our approach is not only to look at the shift between the averages of two references periods but also to observe how each year can be classified using Köppen's classification; thus, we defined “annual climate types” (ACT) and established the frequency of ACTs for each station and each period of 26 years: 1964–1989 and 1990–2015. The statistical and cartographic treatment of this information makes it possible to define the limits of the climates of Brazil and look at its evolution showing the diversity of regional situations in Brazil. The results show that 35 stations (17%) changed from the average Köppen's type, with significant regression of wet tropical types (Af and Am) and temperate types (C). On the other hand, the tropical (Aw), arid and semi-arid (B) types progress between the two periods showing significant modifications of the climatic limits in Brazil: extension of aridity in the northeast of Brazil and increasing extinction of tropical types upon temperate climates in the south of the country and upon rainy types in the south of the Amazon. These results are consistent with other studies and illustrate the potential for climate change and variability monitoring using a simple classification method.