Predicted 2100 climate scenarios affects growth and skeletal development of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) larvae
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Climate changes driven by greenhouse gas emissions have been occurring in an accelerated degree, affecting environmental dynamics and living beings. Among all affected biomes, the Amazon is particularly subjected to adverse impacts, such as temperature rises and water acidification. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of predicted climate change on initial growth and development of an important Amazonian food fish, the tambaqui. We analyzed growth performance, and monitored the initial osteogenic process and the emergence of skeletal anomalies, when larvae were exposed to three climate change scenarios: mild (B1, increase of 1.8°C, 200 ppm of CO2); moderate (A1B, 2.8°C, 400 ppm of CO2); and drastic (A2, 3.4°C, 850 ppm of CO2), in addition to a control room that simulated the current climatic conditions of a pristine tropical forest. The exposure to climate change scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2) resulted in low survival, especially for the animals exposed to A2, (24.7 ± 1.0%). Zootechnical performance under the B1 and A1B scenarios was higher when compared to current and A2, except for condition factor, which was higher in current (2.64 ± 0.09) and A1B (2.41 ± 0.14) scenarios. However, skeletal analysis revealed higher incidences of abnormalities in larvae exposed to A1B (34.82%) and A2 (39.91%) scenarios when compared to current (15.38%). Furthermore, the bone-staining process revealed that after 16 days posthatch (7.8 ± 0.01 mm total length), skeletal structures were still cartilaginous, showing no mineralization in all scenarios. We concluded that tambaqui larvae are well-adapted to high temperatures and may survive mild climate change. However, facing more severe climate conditions, its initial development may be compromised, resulting in high mortality rates and increased incidence of skeletal anomalies, giving evidence that global climate change will hamper tambaqui larvae growth and skeletal ontogeny.