PD-1 and PD-L1 regulate cellular immunity in canine visceral leishmaniasis
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PD-1 is a negative costimulator of chronic infectious diseases In this study, we investigated the expression of PD-1 and its ligands in the spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis and lymphoproliferative response to soluble antigen, in lymph node cells in the presence or absence of antibodies blocking PD-1 and its ligands. Our results showed expression of PD-1 and its ligands is higher after L. infantum infection and in the spleen of infected dogs, PD-1 blockage was able to restore the antigen-dependent lymphoproliferative response and regulated production of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 and NO production. We concluded that L. infantum infection modulates PD-1 and its ligands expression in canine VL and that blockage of PD-1 restores the immune response. Thus, blockage of PD-1 is a target for therapeutic drug development.
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