Canine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Enhance Neuroregeneration in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury
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Crush injuries in peripheral nerves are frequent and induce long-term disability with motor and sensory deficits. Due to axonal and myelin sheath disruptions, strategies for optimized axonal regeneration are needed. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are promising because of their anti-inflammatory properties and secretion of neurotrophins. The present study investigated the effect of canine adipose tissue MSC (Ad-MSC) transplantation in an experimental sciatic nerve crush injury. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham (n = 8); Crush+PBS (n = 8); Crush+MSC (n = 8). Measurements of sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), muscle mass, and electromyography (EMG) were performed. Canine Ad-MSC showed mesodermal characteristics (CD34-, CD45-, CD44+, CD90+ and CD105+) and multipotentiality due to chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. SFI during weeks 3 and 4 was significantly higher in the Crush+MSC group (p < 0.001). During week 4, the EMG latency in the Crush+MSC groups had better near normality (p < 0.05). The EMG amplitude showed results close to normality during week 4 in the Crush+MSC group (p < 0.04). There were no statistical differences in muscle weight between the groups (p > 0.05), but there was a tendency toward weight gain in the Crush+MSC groups. Better motor functional recovery after crush and perineural canine Ad-MSC transplantation was observed during week 2. This was maintained till week 4. In conclusion, the canine Ad-MSC transplantation showed early pro-regenerative effects between 2–4 weeks in the rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.
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