Proteomic analysis of the fast-twitch muscle of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)after prolonged fasting and compensatory growth
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Protocols that improve growth performance in fish while assuring product quality are important for aquaculture. Fasting followed by refeeding may promote compensatory growth, thus optimizing growth performance. During fasting and refeeding, fast-twitch muscle, which comprises most of fish fillet, undergoes intense plasticity. In this work, we studied the proteome of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)fast-twitch muscle after 30 days of fasting (D30), 30 days of refeeding (D60)and 60 days of refeeding (D90)with two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Body mass, growth rate and muscle histology were also assessed. At D30, fish presented muscle catabolism and decreased growth. Proteomic analysis showed that metabolism proteins were the most affected, up and downregulated. Cytoskeleton and amino acid biosynthesis proteins were downregulated, while nuclear and regulatory proteins were upregulated. At D60, fish showed accelerated growth, despite the body mass not completely recovering. Metabolism proteins were still the most affected. Amino acid biosynthesis proteins became upregulated, while cytoskeleton proteins remained downregulated. At D90, the fish presented total compensatory growth. Many metabolic proteins were up or downregulated. Few cytoskeleton proteins remained differentially expressed. Amino acid biosynthesis proteins were mostly upregulated, but less than at D60. Prolonged fasting followed by refeeding also led to the regulation of possible meat quality biomarkers, such as antioxidant enzymes. This fact suggests possible consequences of this protocol on fish meat quality. Our work also enriches our knowledge on proteomic changes during muscle plasticity that occur during fasting and refeeding diet protocols.
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