Improvement of lipase obtaining system by orange waste-based solid-state fermentation: production, characterization and application
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Lipases are an economic important group of biocatalysts that can be produced by some fungal under solid-state fermentation. Orange wastes are source of lipases and potential substrates for lipases production. This work assessed 19 fugal strains cultivated in Citrus sinensis cv. Hamlin orange wastes (peel, frit and core) for production of lipases in order to generate compounds with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. Fifteen of those fungi grew and produced lipases, mainly the Aspergillus brasiliensis [National Institute of Quality Control (INCQS) 40036]/frit system, which showed 99.58 U/g total lipase. The substrate with the highest production of lipase was frit with 26.67 and 78.91 U/g of total lipases produced on average by the 15 microorganisms. Aspergillus niger 01/frit (33.53 U/g) and Aspergillus niger (INCQS 40015)/frit (34.76 U/g) systems showed the highest specificity values in all the herein tested synthetic substrates with 4, 12 and 16 carbons. Analysis of the fatty acid profile of hydrolysis products obtained in the most prominent systems applied to corn and sunflower oils showed: palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid. These acids showed antioxidant capacity of up to 58% DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-pierylhydrazyl) radical reduction and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as cytotoxicity to SCC9 cells (squamous cancer cells).
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