Germination of Physalis peruviana L. seeds under varying conditions of temperature, light, and substrate
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Optimum seed germination conditions are crucial for the complete utilization of the potential of a crop. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of light, temperature, and substrate on the germination of Physalis peruviana L. seeds. Three seed lots were used, which were first assessed over a temperature gradient of nine intervals (from 15 degrees C to 35 degrees C) and alternating temperatures of 20-30 degrees C and 15-35 degrees C under a photoperiod of 8h light. Subsequently, germination was studied according to the substrate used, i.e., paper (on paper), sand (between sand), and vermiculite (between vermiculite), under 8h light per day at a constant temperature of 25 degrees C or alternating temperatures (20-30 degrees C). Evaluations were conducted daily until germination stabilized, and normal seedlings were counted. The results are expressed in percentage, germination speed index, and mean germination time. The germination of P. peruviana seeds occurred within a wide temperature range (15 degrees C to 30 degrees C). A constant temperature of 25 degrees C and alternating temperatures of 20-30 degrees C were found to be optimum under 8h light per day. Sand was the most suitable substrate, but paper and vermiculite can also be used as alternatives. Germination test can be evaluated on the 7th day (first count) and 14th day (last count) after test initiation.