Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal/resin luting agent bond strength: Influence of Titanium dioxide nanotubes addition in both materials
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Purpose: To evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) between Y-TZP and a resin luting agent, after 1 of 2 enhancing strategies with TiO2--nts was applied, either to the resin luting agent or the Y-TZP mass, in different concentrations. Methods: In the Strategy TiO2-nts on ceramic, the resin luting agent Panavia F2.0™ (Kuraray) and an experimental Y-TZP with added concentrations of TiO2--nts (0%, 1%, 2%, and 5% vol/vol) and a commercial Y-TZP, comprised 5 different groups (n = 10). In the Strategy TiO2-nts on cement, the resin luting agent RelyX U200™ (3 M ESPE) was added with different concentrations of TiO2--nts (0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9% wt/wt) luted to a commercial Y-TZP, comprising 4 different groups (n = 10). The Y-TZP discs were included in acrylic bases, and a cylinder (3 × 3 mm) of the correspondent luting agent for each respective group was applied over them. After 24 h, specimens were subjected to SBS assessments in a universal testing machine. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses were also performed on Y-TZP surfaces. Data were analyzed via analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). Results: TiO2-nts on ceramic influenced the bond strength significantly, but not linearly; TiO2-nts on cement did not influence bond strength when analyzed separately, nor in comparison with the first. Conclusion: Y-TZP enhancements with TiO2-nts led to a higher SBS with Panavia F2.0, a 5% TiO2--nt concentration presented the highest bond strength. Modified Rely X U200 did not improve SBS.