Soil fertility and organic carbon in two decades of agroforestry systems composed of Brazil nut, cupuaçuzeiro and peach palm in the Western Amazon
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Amazon rainforest has been replaced by several use systems, such as pastures and varied agricultural uses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the implantation of the agroforestry system (AS) in the Amazon on chemical attributes of the soil in three AS, composed of Brazil nut, cupuaçuzeiro and peach palm, being AS A analyzed at 4 and 19 years old, AS B at 7 and 22 years, and AS C at 6 and 21 years after implantation. The levels of P, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, H+Al, pH, SB, CTC, V% and total organic carbon were evaluated. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in a split plot scheme, with two stages, consisting of the first and second collections in the plots and three depths, being 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm in the subplots, totaling six treatments and 24 repetitions, independently analyzed in the three SAFs. The results were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared using the Tukey test at 5%. Two decades after the establishment of these AS, there was a loss of fertility and total organic carbon in the soil, in addition to the fact that the greater availability of nutrients and the amount of organic matter was concentrated in the superficial layer from 0-20 cm deep. The results indicate that nutrient replacement measures and in-depth acidity correction are necessary, or, depending on the productive objectives of these systems, their implementation should be carried out with greater diversification and complexity of species of exploration and ecosystem services.